# Year 3 Semester 1

(1) what is an Explanatory variable in ANOVA? (2) If an ANOVA study is on schools and their average score for science, math, and art what is the factor and what are the levels? (3) What type of Least Significance Difference (LSD) is in ANOVA? When it is usually used and what are the general perceptions of it according to Dr. Rowe? (4) What is a Boneferroni t test? What are it's characteristics? (5) Comparing the T table and the F table what are the differences? What occurs as n increases? (6) What is the Chef - Eh (Scheffe) test? When is it used and what are it's characteristics?

(1) These are factors each of which has usually 20 or more. (2) Factor: Schools Levels: Avgs for math, Avg for science, Avg for art (3) The LSD is the most liberal test usually used before a test for planning. (4) The Boneforroni test is a post-hoc test that compares two groups while dividing the ALPHA level among # of comparisons. (5) You notice that F values require a higher standard but seems to get close to T values as n increases. (6) Scheffe is the safest post-hoc test which uses K and MS from overall ANOVA to test two groups of samples.

considerably greater than the generalized sensitization specific to the siphon

(Carew, Hawkins, & Kandel, 1983). The enhanced siphon-withdrawal response to the siphon-touch CS following paired training is _____________that occurs from presentation of the tail shock alone. Moreover, this classically conditioned siphon-withdrawal CR is also ________ and does not generalize to other stimuli, such as a touch on the mantle.

(I) Calculate SStotab SSbetween, and SSwithin for the following set of data: Treatment 1 Treatment 2 Treatment 3 n = 10 n = 10 n= 10 N = 30 T = 10 T = 20 T = 30 G = 60 SS = 27 SS = 16 SS = 23 EX^2 = 206 (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) (II) A researcher uses an ANOVA to compare three treatment conditions with a sample of n = 8 in each treatment. For this analysis, find df,otab dfbetween, and dfwithin. (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) (III) A researcher reports an F-ratio with dfbetween = 2 and dfw . min = 30 for an independent-measures ANOVA. How many treatment conditions were compared in the experiment? How many subjects participated in the experiment? (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) (IV) A researcher conducts an experiment comparing four treatment conditions with a separate sample of n = 6 in each treatment. An ANOVA is used to evaluate the data, and the results of the ANOVA are presented in the following table. Complete all missing values in the table. Hint: Begin with the values in the df column. Total (ss)=58 Within treamtns (MS) =2 (Ch 13 - ANOVA T-Test, Post Hoc)

(I) SStotal = 86; SSbetween = 20; SSwithin = 66 (II) d.ftotai = 23; dfbetween = 2; dfwithin = 21 (III) There were 3 treatment conditions (dfbetween = k - 1 = 2). A total of N = 33 individuals participated (dfwithin = 30 = N - k). (IV) Source SS df MS Between treatments 18 3 6 F = 3.00 Within treatments 40 20 2 Total 58 23

20. Mathematics word problems can be particularly difficult, especially for primary-grade children. A recent study investigated a combination of techniques for teaching students to master these problems (Fuchs, Fuchs, Craddock, Hollenbeck, Hamlett, & Schatschneider, 2008). The study investigated the effectiveness of small-group tutoring and the effectiveness of a classroom instruction technique known as "hot math." The hot-math program teaches students to recognize types or categories of problems so that they can generalize skills from one problem to another. The following data are similar to the results obtained in the study. The dependent variable is a math test score for each student after 16 weeks in the study. a. Use a two-factor ANOVA with a = .05 to evaluate the significance of the main effects and the interaction. b. Calculate the n^2 values to measure the effect size for the two main effects. c. Describe the pattern of results. (Is tutoring significantly better than no tutoring? Is traditional classroom instruction significantly different from hot math? Does the effect of tutoring depend on the type of classroom instruction?) (See ans for chart) (Stats Ch 14 - 2 factor ANOVA)

(Insert 20) 20. a. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 114 3 Tutoring 54 1 54 F(1, 20) = 12.56 Instruction 54 1 54 F(1, 20) = 12.56 Tutor x Instr. 6 1 6 F(1, 20) = 1.40 Within Treatments 86 20 4.3 Total 200 23 With df = 1, 20, the critical value for all the tests is 4.35. The main effects for tutoring and for type of instruction are both significant, but the interaction is not significant. b. For both the tutoring main effect and the instruction main effect, η2 = 54/140 = 0.386. For the interaction, = 6/92 = 0.065. c. Tutoring produces significantly higher scores than no tutoring, and the hot math instruction produces significantly higher scores than traditional instruction. With no interaction, the tutoring effect does not depend on which instruction is used, and the instruction effect does not depend on whether there is tutoring.

21. In Chapter 12 (p. 432), we described a study reporting that college students who are on Facebook (or have it running in the background) while studying had lower grades than students who did not use the social network (Kirschner & Karpinski, 2010). A researcher would like to know if the same result extends to students in lower grade levels. The researcher planned a two-factor study comparing Facebook users with non-users for middle school students, high school students, and college students. For consistency across groups, grades were converted into six categories, numbered 0 to 5 from low to high. The results are presented in the following matrix. a. Use a two-factor ANOVA with a = .05 to evaluate the mean differences. b. Describe the pattern of results. (See ans for chart) 22. In Chapter 11, we described a research study in which the color red appeared to increase men's attraction to women (Elliot & Niesta, 2008). The same researchers have published other results showing that red also increases women's attraction to men but does not appear to affect judgments of same sex individuals (Elliot, et al., 2010). Combining these results into one study produces a two-factor design in which men judge photographs of both women and men, which are shown on both red and white backgrounds. The dependent variable is a rating of attractiveness for the person shown in the photograph. The study uses a separate group of participants for each condition. The following table presents data similar to the results from previous research. a. Use a two-factor ANOVA with a = .05 to evaluate the main effects and the interaction b. Describe the effect of background color on judgments of males and females (See ans for chart) (Stats Ch 14 - 2 factor ANOVA)

(Insert 21)21. a. The means for the six groups are as follows: Middle School High School College Non-User 4.00 4.00 4.00 User 3.00 2.00 1.00 Source SS df MS Between Treatments 32 5 Use 24 1 24 F(1, 18) = 14.4 School level 4 2 2 F(2, 18) = 1.2 Interaction 4 2 2 F(2, 18) = 1.2 Within Treatments 30 18 1.67 Total 62 23 For df = 1, 18 the critical value is 4.41 and for df = 2, 18 it is 3.55. The main effect for Facebook use is significant but the other main effect and the interaction are not. b. Grades are significantly lower for Facebook users. A difference exists for all three grade levels but appears to increase as the students get older although there is no significant interaction. 22. a. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 67.7 3 Color 25.6 1 25.6 F(1, 36) = 30.84 Gender 22.5 1 22.5 F(1, 36) = 27.11 ColorGender 19.6 1 19.6 F(1, 36) = 23.61 Within Treatments 30 36 0.83 Total 97.7 39 b. With a critical value of 4.11, all three F-ratios are significant with = .05. The significant interaction indicates that the effect of the background color depends on whether the participants a judging males or females.. The data show a large mean difference for judgments of the females but almost no effect for judgments of males. It appears that the color red only influences males judgments of females.

14. The following table summarizes the results from a two-factor study with 2 levels of factor A and 3 levels of factor B using a separate sample of n = 8 participants in each treatment condition. Fill in the missing values. (Hint: Start with the df values.) (See Ans for table) (Stats Ch 14 - 2 factor ANOVA)

(Insert Image 14) 14. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 60 5 A 5 1 5 F(1, 42) = 2 B 30 2 15 F(2, 42) = 6 A x B 25 2 12.5 F(2, 42) = 5 Within Treatments 105 42 2.5 Total 165 47

17. The following table summarizes the results from a two-factor study with 2 levels of factor A and 3 levels of factor B using a separate sample of n = 11 participants in each treatment condition. Fill in the missing values. (Hint: Start with the df values.) (See ans for chart) (Stats Ch 14 - 2 factor ANOVA)

(Insert Image 17) 17. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 116 5 A 28 1 28 F(1, 24) = 7.00 B 64 2 32 F(1, 24) = 8.00 A x B 24 2 12 F(1, 24) = 3.00 Within Treatments 240 60 4 Total 356 65

16. The Preview section for this chapter described a two-factor study examining performance under two audience conditions (factor B) for high and low self-esteem participants (factor A). The following summary table presents possible results from the analysis of that study. Assuming that the study used a separate sample of n = 15 participants in each treatment condition (each cell), fill in the missing values in the table. (Hint: Start with the df values) (See Ans for chart) (Stats Ch 14 - 2 factor ANOVA)

(Insert image 16) 16. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 67 3 Achievement Need 16 1 16 F(1, 56) = 4.00 Task Difficulty 29 1 29 F(1, 56) = 7.25 Interaction 22 1 22 F(1, 56) = 5.50 Within Treatments 224 56 4 Total 291 59

18. The following data are from a two-factor study examining the effects of two treatment conditions on males and females. a. Use an ANOVA with a = .05 for all tests to evaluate the significance of the main effects and the interaction. b. Compute 12 to measure the size of the effect for each main effect and the interaction (See ans for chart) (Stats Ch 14 - 2 factor ANOVA)

(Insert image 18) 18. a. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 128 3 Gender 0 1 0 F(1, 12) = 0 Treatments 64 1 64 F(1, 12) = 7.53 Gender x Treat. 64 1 64 F(1, 12) = 7.53 Within Treatments 102 12 8.5 Total 230 15 With df = 1, 12, the critical value for all three F-ratios is 4.75. The main effect for the treatments and the interaction are significant, but there is no gender difference. b. The main effect for treatments and the interaction both have η2 = 64/166 =0.3855 and η2 = 0 for gender.

19. The following data are from a two-factor study examining the effects of three treatment conditions on males and females. a. Use an ANOVA with a = .05 for all tests to evaluate the significance of the main effects and the interaction. b. Test the simple main effects using a = .05 to evaluate the mean difference between males and females for each of the three treatments. (See ans for chart) (Stats Ch 14 - 2 factor ANOVA)

(Insert image 19) 19. a. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 360 5 Gender 72 1 72 F(1, 12) = 9.00 Treatments 252 2 126 F(1, 12) = 15.75 Gender x Treat. 36 2 18 F(1, 12) = 2.25 Within Treatments 96 12 8 Total 456 17 With df = 1, 12, the critical value for the gender main effect is 4.75. The main effect for gender is significant. With df = 2, 12, the critical value for the treatment main effect and the interaction is 3.88. The main effect for treatments is significant but the interaction is not. b. For treatment I, F = 0; for treatment II, F = 54/8 = 6.75; and for treatment III, F = 54/8 = 6.75. With df = 1, 12, the critical value for all three tests is 4.75. The results indicate a significant difference between males and females in treatments II and III, but not in treatment I.

13. Some people like to pour beer gently down the side of the glass to preserve bubbles. Others splash it down the center to release the bubbles into a foamy head and free the aromas. Champagne, however is best when the bubbles remain concentrated in the wine. A group of French scientists recently verified the difference between the two pouring methods by measuring the amount of bubbles in each glass of champagne poured two different ways and at three different temperatures (Liger-Belair, 2010). The following data present the pattern of results obtained in the study a. Use a two-factor ANOVA with a = .05 to evaluate the mean differences. b. Briefly explain how temperature and pouring influence the bubbles in champagne according to this pattern of results. (Check Ans for Data) (Stats Ch 14 - 2 factor ANOVA)

(Inset Image 13) 13. a. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 340 5 Pouring 60 1 60 F(1, 54) = 10.00 Temperature 280 2 140 F(2, 54) = 23.33 Interaction 0 2 0 F(2, 54) = 0 Within Treatments 324 54 6 Total 644 59 b. Temperature and pouring method both have significant effects on the bubbles in the wine. However, the effects are independent, there is no interaction.

(Shared Elements and Distributed Representations) distributed representations which stimuli are represented by overlapping sets of nodes or stimulus elements. network model using distributed representations (a) The seven (numbered 1 to 7) nodes in the internal representation are then connected, by modifiable weights, shown in gray, to a single output node. (b) the network is trained to activates three nodes in the internal representation (3, 4, 5), which connect to the output node. If the yellow light is repeatedly paired with a reward, weights from these three active internal-representation nodes to the output node are strengthened. (c) tested with a similar stimulus Because yellow-orange and yellow share two overlapping internal representation nodes (4 and 5), some response activation is produced at the output node. (d) An even more different color, orange, evokes even less overlap in the internal representation nodes

(Shared Elements and Distributed Representations) distributed representations

very little about the tone because the tone does not improve the rat's ability to predict the shock.

(The Rescorla-Wagner Model) Blocking: Rats were first trained that a light predicts a shock and later trained that a compound stimulus of a light and tone also predicts the shock (Kamin, 1969). Kamin found that, with this training, the rat will learn ________________ Kamin's Blocking Effect even if a given cue does predict a US, it may not become associated with that US if its usefulness has been preempted (blocked) by a co-occurring cue that has a longer history of predicting the US.

medium-strong CR to either the tone alone or the light alone, though not as strong a response as to both the light and tone together.

(The Rescorla-Wagner Model) One group of rats (the control group) was trained with a compound cue consisting of a light and a tone; this cue was reliably followed by a shock. The light and tone constituted a compound CS that the rats learned to associate with the shock US. Later, these rats would give a _____________

1. Each of the following matrices represents a possible outcome of a two-factor experiment. For each experiment: a. Describe the main effect for factor A. b. Describe the main effect for factor B. c. Does there appear to be an interaction between the two factors? Experiment I B1 B2 A1 M= 10 M = 20 A2 M = 30 M = 40 Experiment II B1 B2 A1 M=10 M=30 A2 M=20 M=20 2. In a graph showing the means from a two-factor experiment, parallel lines indicate that there is no interaction. (True or false?) 3. A two-factor ANOVA consists of three hypothesis tests. What are they? 4. It is impossible to have an interaction unless you also have main effects for at least one of the two factors. (True or false?) (Stats Ch 14 - 2 factor ANOVA)

. For Experiment I: a. There is a main effect for factor A; the scores in A2 average 20 points higher than in Al b. There is a main effect for factor B; the scores in B2 average 10 points higher than in B1. c. There is no interaction; there is a constant 20-point difference between A1 and A2 that does not depend on the levels of factor B. For Experiment 11: a. There is no main effect for factor A; the scores in A1 and in A2 both average 20. b. There is a main effect for factor B; on average, the scores in B2 are 10 points higher than in B1. c. There is an interaction. The difference between A1 and A2 depends on the level of factor B1. (There is a +10 difference in B1 and a —10 difference in B2.) 2. True. 3. The two-factor ANOVA evaluates the main effect for factor A, the main effect for factor B, and the interaction between the two factors. 4. False. Main effects and interactions are completely independent.

1. Define a dichotomous variable. 2. The following data represent job-related stress scores for a sample of n = 8 individuals. These people also are classified by salary level. a. Convert the data into a form suitable for the point-biserial correlation. b. Compute the point-biserial correlation for these data. Salary More than $40,000 Salary Less than $40,000 SM SL 8 4 6 2 5 1 3 3 3. A researcher would like to know whether there is a relationship between gender and manual dexterity for 3-year-old children. A sample of n = 10 boys and n = 10 girls is obtained and each child is given a manual-dexterity test. Five of the girls failed the test and only two of the boys failed. Describe how these data could be coded into a form suitable for computing a phi-coefficient to measure the strength of the relationship. (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression)

1. A dichotomous variable has only two possible values. 2. a. Salary level is a dichotomous variable and can be coded as Y = 1 for individuals with salary more than $40,000 and Y = 0 for salary less than $40,000. The stress scores produce SS, = 36, the salary codes produce SSy = 2, and SP = 6. b. The point-biserial correlation is 0.71. 3. Gender could be coded with male = 0 and female = 1. Manual dexterity could be coded with failure = 0 and success = 1. Eight boys would have scores of 0 and 1 and two would have scores of 0 and 0. Five girls would have scores of 1 and 1 and five would have scores of 1 and 0.

1. Explain why individual differences do not contribute to the between-treatments variability in a repeated-measures study. 2. What sources of variability contribute to the within-treatment variability for a repeated-measures study? 3. Describe the structure of the F-ratio for the repeated-measures ANOVA. (Psy202, stats, Ch 13)

1. Because the individuals in one treatment are exactly the same as the individuals in every other treatment, there are no individual differences from one treatment to another. 2. Variability (differences) within treatments is caused by individual differences and random, unsystematic differences. 3. The numerator of the F-ratio measures between-treatments variability, which consists of treatment effects and random, unsystematic differences. The denominator measures variability that is exclusively caused by random, unsystematic differences.

1. A researcher finds a correlation of r = (0.71 between the time spent playing video games each week and grade point average for a group of high school boys. This means that playing video games causes students to get lower grades. (True or false?) 2. A researcher finds a correlation of r = 0.60 between salary and the number of years of education for a group of 40-year-old men. How much of the variance in salary is explained by the years of education? (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression) 1. A researcher obtains a correlation of r = —0.39 for a sample of n = 25 individuals. Does this sample provide sufficient evidence to conclude that there is a significant, nonzero correlation in the population? Assume a two-tailed test with a = .05. 2. For a sample of n = 15, how large a correlation is needed to conclude at the .05 level of significance that there is a nonzero correlation in the population? Assume a two-tailed test. 3. As sample size gets smaller, what happens to the magnitude of the correlation necessary for significance? Explain why this occurs. (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression)

1. False. You cannot conclude that there is a cause-and-effect relationship based on a correlation. 2. r2 = 0.36, or 36% 1. No. For n = 25, the critical value is r = 0.396. The sample value is not in the critical region. 2. For n = 15, df = 13 and the critical value is r = 0.514. 3. As the sample size gets smaller, the magnitude of the correlation needed for significance gets larger. With a small sample, it is easy to get a relatively large correlation just by chance. Therefore, a small sample requires a very large correlation before you can be confident there is a real (nonzero) relationship in the population.

1. How does the denominator of the F-ratio (the error term) differ for a repeated-measures ANOVA compared to an independent-measures ANOVA? 2. The repeated-measures ANOVA can be viewed as a two-stage process. What is the purpose of the second stage? 3. A researcher conducts an experiment comparing three treatment conditions with n = 10 scores in each condition. a. If the researcher uses an independent-measures design, how many individuals are needed for the study and what are the df values for the F-ratio? b. If the researcher uses a repeated-measures design, how many individuals are needed for the study and what are the df values for the F-ratio? 4. A researcher conducts a repeated-measures experiment using a sample of n = 8 subjects to evaluate the differences among four treatment conditions. If the results are examined with an ANOVA, what are the df values for the F-ratio? 5. A researcher uses a repeated-measures ANOVA to evaluate the results from a research study and reports an F-ratio with df = 2, 30. a. How many treatment conditions were compared in the study? b. How many individuals participated in the study? (Psy202, stats, Ch 13)

1. For an independent measures design, the variability within treatments is the appropriate error term. For repeated measures, however, you must subtract out variability due to individual differences from the variability within treatments to obtain a measure of error. 2. The second stage of the repeated-measures ANOVA removes the variability due to individual differences from the error term. The individual differences are automatically eliminated from the numerator (between treatments) because the same subjects are used in all treatments. To keep the F-ratio balanced, the individual differences must also be removed from the denominator. 3. a. A total of 30 participants is needed; three separate samples, each with n = 10. The F-ratio has df = 2, 27. b. One sample of n = 10 is needed. The F-ratio has df = 2, 18. 4. The repeated-measures F-ratio will have df = 3, 21. 5 a. 3 treatments b. 16 participants

1. A researcher would like to know which factors are most important to people who are buying a new car. A sample of n = 200 customers between the ages of 20 and 29 are asked to identify the most important factor in the decision process: Performance, Reliability, or Style. The researcher would like to know whether there is a difference between the factors identified by women compared to those identified by men. The data are as follows: Observed Frequencies of Most Important factor According to Gender Performance Reliability Style Totals 21 33 26 80 19 67 34 120 40 100 60 T: 40 67 60 a. State the null hypotheses. b. Determine the value for df for the chi-square test. c. Compute the expected frequencies. (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test) 2. A researcher completes a chi-square test for independence and obtains x2 = 6.2 for a sample of n = 40 participants. a. If the frequency data formed a 2 X 2 matrix, what is the phi-coefficient for the test? b. If the frequency data formed a 3 x 3 matrix, what is Cramer's V for the test? 2. Explain why a very small value for an expected frequency can distort the results of a chi-square test. (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test) 3. A developmental psychologist would like to determine whether infants display any color preferences. A stimulus consisting of four color patches (red, green, blue, and yellow) is projected onto the ceiling above a crib. Infants are placed in the crib, one at a time, and the psychologist records how much time each infant spends looking at each of the four colors. The color that receives the most attention during a 100-second test period is identified as the preferred color for that infant. The preferred colors for a sample of 60 infants are shown in the following table: Red Green Blue Yellow 20 12 18 10 a. Do the data indicate any significant preferences among the four colors? Test at the .05 level of significance. b. Write a sentence demonstrating how the outcome of the hypothesis test would appear in a research report. (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test) 4. Data from the department of motor vehicles indicate that 80% of all licensed drivers are older than age 25. a. In a sample of n = 60 people who recently received speeding tickets, 38 were older than 25 years and the other 22 were age 25 or younger. Is the age distribution for this sample significantly different from the distribution for the population of licensed drivers? Use a = .05. b. In a sample of n = 60 people who recently received parking tickets, 43 were older than 25 years and the other 17 were age 25 or younger. Is the age distribution for this sample significantly different from the distribution for the population of licensed drivers? Use a = .05. (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test) 5. To investigate the phenomenon of "home-team advantage," a researcher recorded the outcomes from 64 college football games on one Saturday in October. Of the 64 games, 42 were won by home teams. Does this result provide enough evidence to conclude that home teams win significantly more than would be expected by chance? Assume that winning and losing are equally likely events if there is no home-team advantage. Use a = .05. (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test) 6. Research has demonstrated that people tend to be attracted to others who are similar to themselves. One study demonstrated that individuals are disproportionately more likely to marry those with surnames that begin with the same last letter as their own (Jones, Pelham, Carvallo, & Mirenberg, 2004). The researchers began by looking at marriage records and recording the surname for each groom and the maiden name of each bride. From these records it is possible to calculate the probability of randomly matching a bride and a groom whose last names begin with the same letter. Suppose that this probability is only 6.5%. Next, a sample of n = 200 married couples is selected and the number who shared the same last initial at the time they were married is counted. The resulting observed frequencies are as follows: Same Different Initial Initials 19 1 181 200 Do these data indicate that the number of couples with the same last initial is significantly different that would be expected if couples were matched randomly? Test with a = .05. (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test)

1. Nonparametric tests make few if any assumptions about the populations from which the data are obtained. For example, the populations do not need to form normal distributions, nor is it required that different populations in the same study have equal variances (homogeneity of variance assumption). Parametric tests require data measured on an interval or ratio scale. For nonparametric tests, any scale of measurement is acceptable. 2. a. The null hypothesis states that the gender distribution for theater goers is not different from the distribution for the general population of students. For a sample of 600 students, the expected frequencies are 330 females (55%) and 270 males (45%), and chi-square = 20.37. With df = 1, the critical value is 3.84. Reject H0 and conclude that the gender distribution for theater goers is significantly different from the distribution for the population of students. b. The null hypothesis states that the gender distribution for basketball fans is not different from the distribution for the general population of students. For a sample of 180 students, the expected frequencies are 99 females (55%) and 81 males (45%), and chi-square = 5.75. With df = 1, the critical value is 3.84. Reject H0 and conclude that the gender distribution for basketball fans is significantly different from the distribution for the population of students. 3. a. The null hypothesis states that there is no preference among the four colors; p = 1/4 for all categories. The expected frequencies are fe = 15 for all categories, and chi square = 4.53. With df = 3, the critical value is 7.81. Fail to reject H0 and conclude that there are no significant preferences. b. The results indicate that there are no significant preferences among the four colors, χ2(3, N = 60) = 4.53, p > .05. 4. a. The null hypothesis states that the age distribution for people who get speeding tickets is not different from the distribution for the population of licensed drivers. With df = 1, the critical value is 3.84. The expected frequencies are 48 over age 25 and 12 under age 25, and chi-square = 10.42. Reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the age distribution for people who receive speeding tickets is significantly different from the distribution for the population of drivers. b. The null hypothesis states that the age distribution for people who get parking tickets is not different from the distribution for the population of licensed drivers. With df = 1, the critical value is 3.84. The expected frequencies are 48 over age 25 and 12 under age 25, and chi-square = 2.60. Fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the age distribution for people who receive speeding tickets is not significantly different from the distribution for the population of drivers. 5. The null hypothesis states that wins and loses are equally likely. With 64 games, the expected frequencies are 32 wins and 32 losses. With df = 1 the critical value is 3.84, and the data produce a chi-square of 6.25. Reject the null hypothesis and conclude that home team wins are significantly more common that would be expected by chance 6. The null hypothesis states that couples with the same initial do not occur more often than would be expected by chance. For a sample of 200, the expected frequencies are 13 with the same initial and 187 with different initials. With df = 1 the critical value is 3.84, and the data produce a chi-square of 2.96. Fail to reject the null hypothesis.

1. Explain how SSen., is computed in the repeated-measures ANOVA. 2. A repeated-measures study is used to evaluate the mean differences among three treatment conditions using a sample of n = 8 participants. What are the df values for the F-ratio? 3. For the following data, compute SSbetween treatments and SSbetween subjects. Treatment Sub 1 2 3 4 A 2 2 2 2 G = 32 B 4 0 0 4 EX62 = 96 C 2 0 2 0 D 4 2 2 4 T= 12 T = 4 T = 6 T= 10 SS = 4 SS = 4 SS = 3 SS = 11 4. A research report includes a repeated-measures F-ratio with df = 3, 24. How many treatment conditions were compared, and how many individuals participated in the study? (See Box 13.2.) (Psy202, stats, Ch 13)

1. SSerm, = SSwithin — SSbetween subjects Variability from individual differences is subtracted from the within-treatments variability. 2. df = 2, 14 3. SSbetween treatments = 10, SSbetween subjects = 8 4. There were 4 treatment conditions (k — 1 = 3) and 9 participants (n — 1 = 8).

1. Research suggests that the antioxidants in foods such as blueberries can reduce and even reverse age-related declines in cognitive functioning (Joseph et al., 1999). To test this phenomenon, a researcher selects a sample of n = 25 adults aged 70 to 75 and administers a cognitive function test to each participant. The participants then drink a blueberry supplement every day for 4 months before they are tested again. The researcher compares the scores before treatment with the scores after treatment to see if there is any change in cognitive function. (PSY202 Ch 19) 2. Recent budget cuts forced the city school district to increase class size in the elementary schools. To determine student reaction to the change, the district administered a survey to students asking whether the larger classes were "better, worse, or not different" from the classes the previous year. The results from the survey will be used to describe the students' attitude. (PSY202 Ch 19) 3. Last fall, the college introduced a peer-mentor program in which a sample of n = 75 freshmen was each assigned an upperclassman mentor. To evaluate the success of the program, the administration looked at the number of students who returned to the college to begin their second year. The data showed that 88% of the students in the peer-mentor program returned, compared to 72% for freshmen who were not in the program. (PSY202 Ch 19)

1. The mean and standard deviation could be used to describe the set of scores before treatment and the set of scores after treatment. Or a difference score could be computed for each participant and the results could be described with the mean and standard deviation for the set of difference scores. A repeated-measures t test would evaluate the significance of the mean difference and effect size would be measured by Cohen's d or r2. 2. The median or mode could be used to describe central tendency or the data could be described by the proportion in each of the ordinal categories. 3. The data would form a 22 frequency distribution matrix and the proportion in each cell would describe the result. A chi-square test for independence would determine whether the proportions for the peer mentor group are significantly different from the proportions for other freshmen. Effect size would be measured with a phi-coefficient.

1. Describe what is measured by the standard error of estimate for a regression equation. 2. As the numerical value of a correlation increases, what happens to the standard en-or of estimate? 3. A sample of n = 6 pairs of X and Y scores produces a correlation of r = 0.80 and SSy = 100. What is the standard error of estimate for the regression equation? (Ch 16, multiple regression 2)

1. The standard error of estimate measures the average, or standard, distance between the predicted Y values on the regression line and the actual Y values in the data. 2. A larger correlation means that the data points are clustered closer to the line, which means the standard error of estimate is smaller. 3. The standard error of estimate = (30/4)^0.5 = 3.

1. Sales figures show a positive relationship between temperature and ice cream consumption; as temperature increases, ice cream consumption also increases. Other research shows a positive relationship between temperature and crime rate (Cohn & Rotton, 2000). When the temperature increases, both ice cream consumption and crime rates tend to increase. As a result, there is a positive correlation between ice cream consumption and crime rate. However, what do you think is the true relationship between ice cream consumption and crime rate? Specifically, what value would you predict for the partial correlation between the two variables if temperature were held constant? (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression) _________________________ 1. Describe what is measured by a Spearman correlation, and explain how this correlation is different from the Pearson correlation. 2. If the following scores are converted into ranks, what rank will be assigned to the individuals who have scores of X = 7? Scores: 1, 1, 1, 3, 6, 7, 7, 8, 10 3. Rank the following scores and compute the Spearman correlation: x y 2 7 12 38 9 6 10 19 (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression)

1. There should be no systematic relationship between ice cream consumption and crime rate. The partial correlation should be near zero. ______________________ 1. The Spearman correlation measures the consistency of the direction of the relationship between two variables. The Spearman correlation does not depend on the form of the relationship, whereas the Pearson correlation measures how well the data fit a linear form. 2. Both scores get a rank of 6.5 (the average of 6 and 7). 3. rs = 0.80

1. For a chi-square test, the observed frequencies are always whole numbers. (True or false?) 2. For a chi-square test, the expected frequencies are always whole numbers. (True or false?) 3. A researcher has developed three different designs for a computer keyboard. A sample of n = 60 participants is obtained, and each individual tests all three keyboards and identifies his or her favorite. The frequency distribution of preferences is as follows: Design A Design B Design C 23 12 25 n = 60 a. What is the df value for the chi-square statistic? b. Assuming that the null hypothesis states that there are no preferences among the three designs, find the expected frequencies for the chi-square test. (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test)

1. True. Observed frequencies are obtained by counting people in the sample. 2. False. Expected frequencies are computed and may be fractions or decimal values. 3. a. df = 2 b. According to the null hypothesis one-third of the population would prefer each design. The expected frequencies should show one-third of the sample preferring each design. The expected frequencies are all 20.

1. Explain why the F-ratio is expected to be near 1.00 when the null hypothesis is true. (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) 2. Describe the similarities between an F-ratio and a t statistic. (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) 3. Several factors influence the size of the F-ratio. For each of the following, indicate whether it would influence the numerator or the denominator of the F-ratio, and indicate whether the size of the F-ratio would increase or decrease. a. Increase the differences between the sample means. b. Increase the size of the sample variances. (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) 4. Why should you use ANOVA instead of several t tests to evaluate mean differences when an experiment consists of three or more treatment conditions? (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) 5. Posttests are done after an ANOVA. a. What is the purpose of posttests? b. Explain why you do not need posttests if the analysis is comparing only two treatments. c. Explain why you do not need posttests if the decision from the ANOVA is to fail to reject the null hypothesis. (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) 6. An independent-measures research study compares three treatment conditions with a sample of n = 10 in each condition. The sample means are MI = 2, M2 = 3, and M3 = 7. a. Compute SS for the set of 3 treatment means. (Use the three means as a set of n = 3 scores and compute SS.) b. Using the result from part a, compute n(SS,Theans). Note that this value is equal to SSI„,' ,„,„ (see Equation 12.6). c. Now, compute SSbetween with the computational formula using the T values (Equation 12.7). You should obtain the same result as in part b. (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) 7. The following data summarize the results from an independent-measures study comparing three treatment conditions. I II III n= 6 n= 6 n= 6 M = 1 M = 5 M = 6 N = 18 T= 6 T= 30 T= 36 G = 72 SS = 30 SS = 35 SS = 40 EX^2 = 477 a. Use an ANOVA with a = .05 to determine whether there are any significant differences among the three treatment means. b. Calculate ri2 to measure the effect size for this study. c. Write a sentence demonstrating how a research report would present the results of the hypothesis test and the measure of effect size. (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) 8. For the preceding problem you should find that there are significant differences among the three treatments. The primary reason for the significance is that the mean for treatment I is substantially smaller than the means for the other two treatments. To create the following data, we started with the values from problem 7 and added 3 points to each score in treatment I. Recall that adding a constant causes the mean to change but has no influence on the variability of the sample. In the resulting data, the mean differences are much smaller than those in problem 7. I II III n= 6 n= 6 n= 6 M= 4 M= 5 M= 6 N = 18 T = 24 T = 30 T = 36 G = 90 SS = 30 SS = 35 SS = 40 EX2 = 567 a. Before you begin any calculations, predict how the change in the data should influence the outcome of the analysis. That is, how will the F-ratio and the value of ,n2 for these data compare with the values obtained in problem 7? b. Use an ANOVA with a = .05 to determine whether there are any significant differences among the three treatment means. (Does your answer agree with your prediction in part a?) c. Calculate 7)2 to measure the effect size for this study. (Does your answer agree with your prediction in part a?) (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests)

1. When there is no treatment effect, the numerator and the denominator of the F‑ratio are both measuring the same sources of variability (random, unsystematic differences from sampling error). In this case, the F‑ratio is balanced and should have a value near 1.00. 2. Both the F‑ratio and the t statistic are comparing the actual mean differences between sample means (numerator) with the differences that would be expected if there is no treatment effect (H0 is true). If the numerator is sufficiently bigger than the denominator, we conclude that there is a significant difference between treatments. 3. 3. a. As the differences between sample means increase, MSbetween also increases, and the F- ratio increases. b. Increases in sample variability cause MSwithin to increase and, thereby, decrease the F- ratio. 4. With 3 or more treatment conditions, you need three or more t tests to evaluate all the mean differences. Each test involves a risk of a Type I error. The more tests you do, the more risk there is of a Type I error. The ANOVA performs all of the tests simultaneously with a single, fixed alpha level. 5. a. Posttests are used to determine exactly which treatment conditions are significantly different. b. If there are only two treatments, then there is no question as to which two treatments are different. c. If the decision is to fail to reject H0, then there are no significant differences. 6. a. The three means produce SS = 14. b. n(SSmeans) = 140 c. SSbetween = 140 7. a. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 84 2 42 F(2, 15) = 6.00 Within Treatments 105 15 7 Total 189 17 With α = .05, the critical value is F = 3.68. Reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there are significant differences among the three treatments. b. η2 = 84/189 = 0.444. c. Analysis of variance showed significant mean differences among the three treatments, F(2, 15) = 6.00, p < .05, η2 = 0.444. 8. a. With smaller mean differences the F-ratio and η2 should both be smaller than the values obtained in problem 7. b Source SS df MS Between Treatments 12 2 6 F(2, 15) = 0.857 Within Treatments 105 15 7 Total 117 17 b. With α = .05, the critical value is F = 3.68. Fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there are no significant differences among the three treatments. The F-ratio is much smaller as predicted. c. For these data, η2 = 12/117 = 0.103 which is much smaller than the value in problem 7.

1. A local gym charges a $25 monthly membership fee plus $2 per hour for aerobics classes. What is the linear equation that describes the relationship between the total monthly cost (Y) and the number of class hours each month (X)? 2. For the following linear equation, what happens to the value of Y each time X is increased by 1 point? Y = —3X + 7 3. Use the linear equation Y = 2X — 7 to determine the value of Y for each of the following values of X: 1, 3, 5, 10. 4. If the slope constant (b) in a linear equation is positive, then a graph of the equation is a line tilted from lower left to upper right. (True or false?) (Ch 16, multiple regression 2)

1. Y = 2X + 25 2. The slope is —3, so Y decreases by 3 points each time X increases by 1 point. 3. x y 1 —5 3 —1 5 3 10 13 4. True. A positive slope indicates that Y increases (goes up in the graph) when X increases (goes to the right in the graph).

1. A correlation measures the relationship between two variables, X and Y. The relationship is described by three characteristics: a. ____a___ can be either positive or negative. A positive relationship means that X and Y vary in the same direction. A negative relationship means that X and Y vary in opposite directions. The sign of the correlation (+ or -) specifies the direction. b. ___b___ The most common form for a relationship is a straight line, which is measured by the Pearson correlation. Other correlations measure the consistency or strength of the relationship, independent of any specific form. c. ___c___. The numerical value of the correlation measures the strength or consistency of the relationship. A correlation of 1.00 indicates a perfectly consistent relationship and 0.00 indicates no relationship at all. For the Pearson correlation, r = 1.00 (or -1.00) means that the data points fit perfectly on a straight line. (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression) 3. A correlation between two variables should not be interpreted as implying a causal relationship. Simply because ____a___ 4. To evaluate the strength of a relationship, you square the value of the correlation. The resulting value, r2, is called the coefficient of determination because it ____a___ (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression) 5. A __a___ measures the linear relationship between two variables by eliminating the influence of a third variable by holding it constant. (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression) 6. The___a___measures the consistency of direction in the relationship between X and Y—that is, the degree to which the relationship is one-directional, or monotonic. The Spearman correlation is computed by a two-stage process: a. Rank the X scores and the Y scores separately. b. Compute the Pearson correlation using the ranks. (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression)

1. a. Direction. A relationship 2. b. Form 3. c. Strength or consistencya. X and Y are related does not mean that X causes Y or that Y causes X. 4. a. measures the portion of the variability in one variable that can be predicted using the relationship with the second variable. 5. partial correlation 6. Spearman correlation (rs)

A researcher used ANOVA and computed F = 4.25 for the following data. Treatments I II III n = 10 n = 10 n = 10 M = 20 M = 28 M = 35 SS = 1005 SS = 1391 SS = 1180 a. If the mean for treatment III were changed to M = 25, what would happen to the size of the F-ratio (increase or decrease)? Explain your answer. b. If the SS for treatment I were changed to SS = 1400, what would happen to the size of the F-ratio (increase or decrease)? Explain your answer. (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) 2. A research study comparing three treatment conditions produces T = 20 with n = 4 for the first treatment, T = 10 with n = 5 for the second treatment, and T = 30 with n = 6 for the third treatment. Calculate SSbetweentreatments for these data. (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) 3. With k = 2 treatments, are post hoc tests necessary when the null hypothesis is rejected? Explain why or why not. (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) 4. An ANOVA comparing three treatments produces an overall F-ratio with df = 2, 27. If the Scheffe test was used to compare two of the three treatments, then the Scheffe F-ratio would also have df = 2, 27. (True or false?) (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) 5. Using the data and the results from Example 12.1, a. Use Tukey's HSD test to determine whether there is a significant mean difference between a 12-foot and a 15-foot distance. Use a = .05. b. Use the Scheffe test to determine whether there is a significant mean difference between 12 feet and 15 feet. Use a = .05. (Ch 13 - ANOVA T-Test, Post Hoc) 6. A researcher uses an independent-measures t test to evaluate the mean difference obtained in a research study, and obtains a t statistic of t = 3.00. If the researcher had used an ANOVA to evaluate the results, the F-ratio would be F = 9.00. (True or false?) (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) 7. An ANOVA produces an F-ratio with df = 1, 34. Could the data have been analyzed with a t test? What would be the degrees of freedom for the t statistic? (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests)

1. a. If the mean for treatment III were changed to M = 25, it would reduce the size of the mean differences (the three means would be closer together). This would reduce the size of MSbetween and would reduce the size of the F-ratio. b. If the SS in treatment I were increased to SS = 1400, it would increase the size of the variability within treatments. This would increase MSwithin and would reduce the size of the F-ratio. 2. With G = 60 and N = 15, SSbetween = 30 3. No. Post hoc tests are used to determine which treatments are different. With only two treatment conditions, there is no uncertainty as to which two treatments are different. 4. True 5. a. For this test, q = 4.05 and HSD = 2.55. There is a 3-point mean difference between 12 feet and 15 feet, which is large enough to be significant. b. The Scheffe F = 3.75, which is greater than the critical value of 3.24. Conclude that the mean difference between 12 feet and 15 feet is significant. 6. True. F = t2 7. If the F-ratio has df = 1, 34, then the experiment compared only two treatments, and you could use a t statistic to evaluate the data. The t statistic would have df = 34.

1. Define each of the following terms: a. Factor b. Level c. Two-factor study 2. The structure of a two-factor study can be presented as a matrix with the levels of one factor determining the rows and the levels of the second factor determining the columns. With this structure in mind, describe the mean differences that are evaluated by each of the three hypothesis tests that make up a two-factor ANOVA. 3. Briefly explain what happens during the second stage of the two-factor ANOVA. 4. No Treatment treatment Male M=5 M=3 Female M=9 M=13 a. Which two means are compared to describe the treatment main effect? b. Which two means are compared to describe the gender main effect? c. Is there an interaction between gender and treatment? Explain your answer. (Stats Ch 14 - 2 factor ANOVA)

1. a. In analysis of variance, an independent variable (or a quasi-independent variable) is called a factor. b. The values of a factor that are used to create the different groups or treatment conditions are called the levels of the factor. c. A research study with two independent (or quasi-independent) variables is called a two- factor study. 2. One test for main effects evaluates the mean differences between the rows of the matrix and the second test for main effects evaluates mean differences between the columns. The test for an interaction evaluates the significance of any mean differences that are not explained by the row and/or column differences. 3. During the second stage of the two-factor ANOVA the mean differences between treatments are analyzed into differences from each of the two main effects and differences from the interaction. 4. a. The main effect for treatment is the 1-point difference between the overall column means, M = 7 and M = 8. b. The main effect for gender is the 7-point difference between the overall row means, M = 4 and M = 11. c. There is an interaction. The effect of the treatment depends on gender. With the treatment, scores decreases by an average of 2 points for the males and increase by an average of 4 points for the females.

1. For each of the following, indicate whether you would expect a positive or a negative correlation. a. Model year and price for a used Honda b. IQ and grade point average for high school students c. Daily high temperature and daily energy consumption for 30 winter days in New York City 2. The data points would be clustered more closely around a straight line for a correlation of —0.80 than for a correlation of +0.05. (True or false?) 3. If the data points are clustered close to a line that slopes up from left to right, then a good estimate of the correlation would be +0.90. (True or false?) 4. If a scatter plot shows a set of data points that form a circular pattern, the correlation should be near zero. (True or false?) (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression)

1. a. Positive: Higher model years tend to have higher prices. b. Positive: More intelligent students tend to get higher grades. c. Negative: Higher temperature tends to decrease the need for heating. 2. True. The numerical value indicates the strength of the relationship. The sign only indicates direction. 3. True. 4. True.

1. Data from a sample of n = 15 individuals are used to compute a multiple regression equation with two predictor variables. The equation has R2 = 0.20 and SSy = 150. a. Find SSresidual and compute the standard error of estimate for the regression equation. b. Find SSregression and compute the F-ratio to evaluate the significance of the regression equation. (Ch 16, multiple regression 2)

1. a. SSresidual = 120. The standard error of estimate is V = 3.16. b. SSrcgre.ion = 30 with df = 2. SSresidual = 120 with df = 12. F = 1.50. With df = 2, 12, the F-ratio is not significant.

1. Sketch a scatter plot for the following data—that is, a graph showing the X, Y data points: X Y 1 4 3 9 5 8 a. Find the regression equation for predicting Y from X. Draw this line on your graph. Does it look like the best-fitting line? b. Use the regression equation to find the predicted Y value corresponding to each X in the data. (Ch 16, multiple regression 2)

1. a. SSx = 8, SP = 8, b = 1, a = 4. The equation is Y = x + 4. b. The predicted Y values are 5, 7, and 9.

e. Increase conductance velocity along an axon

10. The function of myelin producing cells (Schwann cells, oligodentrocytes) is to: a. Increase the rate of action potential production in a neuron b. Prevent the loss of water from a nerve c. Remove neurotransmitters from the synapse d. Protect the neuron from neurotoxins e. Increase conductance velocity along an axon

10. The following results are from an independent-measures, two-factor study with n = 5 participants in each treatment condition. B1 B2 B3 A1 T=25 T=40 T=70 M=5 M=8 M=14 SS=30 SS=38 SS=46 A2 T=15 T=20 T=40 M=3 M=4 M=8 SS=22 SS=26 SS=30 N = 30, G = 210, EX^2 = 2062 a. Use a two-factor ANOVA with a = .05 to evaluate the main effects and the interaction. b. Test the simple main effects using a = .05 to evaluate the mean difference between treatment A 1 and A2 for each level of factor B. 11. A researcher conducts an independent-measures, two-factor study with two levels of factor A and three levels of factor B, using a sample of n = 12 participants in each treatment condition. a. What are the df values for the F-ratio evaluating the main effect of factor A? b. What are the df values for the F-ratio evaluating the main effect of factor B? c. What are the df values for the F-ratio evaluating the interaction? 12. Most sports injuries are immediate and obvious, like a broken leg. However, some can be more subtle, like the neurological damage that may occur when soccer players repeatedly head a soccer ball. To examine long-term effects of repeated heading, Downs and Abwender (2002) examined two different age groups of soccer players and swimmers. The dependent variable was performance on a conceptual thinking task. Following are hypothetical data, similar to the research results. a. Use a two-factor ANOVA with a = .05 to evaluate the main effects and interaction. b. Calculate the effects size (12) for the main effects and the interaction. c. Briefly describe the outcome of the study. College Older n = 20 n = 20 Soccer M = 9 M=4 T = 180 T=80 SS = 380 SS=390 n = 20 n = 20 Swim M = 9 M = 8 T= 180 T= 160 SS = 350 SS = 400 X^2 = 6360 (Stats Ch 14 - 2 factor ANOVA)

10. a. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 400 5 A 120 1 120 F(1, 24) = 15.00 B 260 2 130 F(1, 24) = 16.25 A x B 20 2 10 F(1, 24) = 1.25 Within Treatments 192 24 8 Total 592 39 The F-ratio for factor A has df = 1, 24 and the critical value is F = 4.26. Factor B and the interaction have df = 2, 24 and the critical value is 3.40. The main effect is significant for both factors but not for the interaction. b. For level B1 F = 10/8 = 1.25, for B2 F = 40/8 = 5.00, and for B3 F = 90/8 = 11.25. For all tests, df = 1, 24 and the critical value is 4.26. There are significant differences at levels B2 and B3 but not at B1. 11. a. df = 1, 66 b. df = 2, 66 c. df = 2, 66 12. a. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 340 3 A 80 1 80 F(1,76) = 4.00 B 180 1 180 F(1,76) = 9.00 A x B 80 1 80 F(1,76) = 4.00 Within Treatments 1520 76 20 Total 1860 79 The critical value for all three F-ratios is 3.98 (using df = 1, 70). Both main effects and the interaction are significant. b. For the sport factor, eta squared is 80/1600 = 0.050. For the age factor, eta squared is 180/1700 = 0.106. For the interaction, eta squared is 80/1600 = 0.050. c. For the swimmers, there is little or no difference between the younger and older age groups, but the older soccer players show noticeably lower scores than the younger players.

10. For the data in problem 9, a. Compute SStetel and SSbetween treatments. b. Eliminate the mean differences between treatments by adding 2 points to each score in treatment I, adding 1 point to each score in treatment II, and subtracting 3 points from each score in treatment III. (All three treatments should end up with M = 3 and T = 15.) c. Calculate SStotai for the modified scores. (Caution: You first must find the new value for 1X2.) d. Because the treatment effects were eliminated in part b, you should find that SStotai for the modified scores is smaller than SS,„tel for the original scores. The difference between the two SS values should be exactly equal to the value of SSbetween treatments for the original scores. Person I II III Totals A 1 1 4 P = 6 B 3 4 8 P = 15 N = 15 C 0 2 7 P = 9 G = 45 D 0 0 6 P= 6 1X2 = 231 E 1 3 5 P = 9 M= 1 M = 2 M = 6 T = 5 T = 10 T = 30 SS = 6 SS = 10 SS = 10 11. The following data were obtained from a repeated measures study comparing three treatment conditions. Subject Treatment I II III P A 6 8 10 24 G = 48 B 5 5 5 15 EX2 = 294 C 1 2 3 6 D 0 1 2 3 T= 12 T= 16 T= 20 SS = 26 SS = 30 SS = 38 Use a repeated-measures ANOVA with a = .05 to determine whether these data are sufficient to demonstrate significant differences between the treatments. 12. In Problem 11 the data show large and consistent differences between subjects. For example, subject A has the largest score in every treatment and subject D always has the smallest score. In the second stage of the ANOVA, the large individual differences are subtracted out of the denominator of the F-ratio, which results in a larger value for F. The following data were created by using the same numbers that appeared in Problem 11. However, we eliminated the consistent individual differences by scrambling the scores within each treatment. Subject Treatment I II III P A 6 2 3 11 G = 48 B 5 1 5 11 EX^2 = 294 C 0 5 10 15 D 1 8 2 11 T= 12 T= 16 T= 20 SS = 26 SS = 30 SS = 38 a. Use a repeated-measures ANOVA with a = .05 to determine whether these data are sufficient to demonstrate significant differences between the treatments. b. Explain how the results of this analysis compare with the results from Problem 11. 13. One of the primary advantages of a repeated-measures design, compared to an independent-measures design, is that it reduces the overall variability by removing variance caused by individual differences. The following data are from a research study comparing three treatment conditions. a. Assume that the data are from an independent measures study using three separate samples, each with n = 6 participants. Ignore the column of P totals and use an independent-measures ANOVA with a = .05 to test the significance of the mean differences. b. Now assume that the data are from a repeatedmeasures study using the same sample of n = 6 participants in all three treatment conditions. Use a repeated-measures ANOVA with a = .05 to test the significance of the mean differences. c. Explain why the two analyses lead to different conclusions. Treatment 1 2 3 P 6 9 12 27 8 8 8 24 N = 18 5 7 9 21 G = 108 0 4 8 12 EX^2 = 800 2 3 4 9 3 5 7 15 (Psy202, stats, Ch 13)

11. The null hypothesis states that there are no differences among the three treatments, H0: μ1 = μ2 = μ3. With df = 2, 6, the critical value is 5.14. F(2,6) = 6.00 Source SS df MS Between Treatments 8 2 4 Within Treatments 94 9 Between Subjects 90 3 Error 4 6 0.67 Total 102 11 Reject H0. There are significant differences among the three treatments. 12. a. The null hypothesis states that there are no differences among the three treatments, H0: μ1 = μ2 = μ3. With df = 2, 6, the critical value is 5.14. F(2,6) = 0.27 Source SS df MS Between Treatments 8 2 4 Within Treatments 94 9 Between Subjects 4 3 Error 90 6 15 Total 102 11 Fail to reject H0. There are no significant differences among the three treatments. b. In problem 11 the individual differences were relatively large and consistent. When the individual differences were subtracted out, the error was greatly reduced. 13. a. For the independent-measures ANOVA, we obtain: F(2,15) = 3.46 Source SS df MS Between Treatments 48 2 24 Within Treatments 104 15 6.93 Total 152 17 With a critical value of 3.68 for alpha = .05, fail to reject the null hypothesis. b. For the repeated-measures ANOVA, Source SS df MS Between Treatments 48 2 24 F(2,10) = 12.00 Within Treatments 104 15 Between Subjects 84 5 Error 20 10 2 Total 152 17 With a critical value of 4.10 for = .05, reject the null hypothesis. c. The repeated-measures ANOVA reduces the error variance by removing individual differences. This increases the likelihood that the ANOVA will find significant differences.

11. A communications company has developed three new designs for a cell phone. To evaluate consumer response, a sample of 120 college students is selected and each student is given all three phones to use for 1 week. At the end of the week, the students must identify which of the three designs they prefer. The distribution of preference is as follows: Design 1 Design 2 Design 3 54 38 28 Do the results indicate any significant preferences among the three designs? (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test) 12. In problem 11, a researcher asked college students to evaluate three new cell phone designs. However, the researcher suspects that college students may have criteria that are different from those used by older adults. To test this hypothesis, the researcher repeats the study using a sample of n = 60 older adults in addition to a sample of n = 60 students. The distribution of preference is as follows: Design 1 Design 2 Design 3 Student 27 20 13 60 Older Adult 21 34 5 60 48 54 18 Do the data indicate that the distribution of preferences for older adults is significantly different from the distribution for college students? Test with a = .05. (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test) 13. Research suggests that romantic background music increases the likelihood that a woman will give her phone number to a man she has just met (Gueguen & Jacoby, 2010). In the study, women spent time in a waiting room with background music playing. In one condition, the music was a popular love song and for the other condition the music was a neutral song. The participant was then moved to another room in which she was instructed to discuss two food products with a young man. The men were part of the study and were selected because they had been rated as average in attractiveness. The experimenter returned to end the study and asked the pair to wait alone for a few minutes. During this time, the man used a scripted line to ask the woman for her phone number. The following table presents data similar to those obtained in the study, showing the number of women who did or did not give their numbers for each music condition. Phone No Number Number Romantic Music 21 19 9 31 30 50 Is there a significant difference between the two types of music? Test with a = .05 (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test) 14. Mulvihill, Obuseh, and Caldwell (2008) conducted a survey evaluating healthcare providers' perception of a new state children's insurance program. One question asked the providers whether they viewed the reimbursement from the new insurance as higher, lower, or the same as private insurance. Another question assessed the providers' overall satisfaction with the new insurance. The following table presents observed frequencies similar to the study results. Satisfied Not Satisfied Less Reimbursement 46 54 100 Same or More 42 18 60 Reimbursement 88 72 Do the results indicate that the providers' satisfaction of the new program is related to their perception of the reimbursement rates? Test with a = .05. (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test)

11. The null hypothesis states that there are no preferences among the three designs; p = 1/3 for all categories. With df = 2, the critical value is 5.99. The expected frequencies are fe = 40 for all categories, and chi square = 8.60. Reject H0 and conclude that there are significant preferences. 12. The null hypothesis states that the distribution of preferences is the same for both groups (same proportions). With df = 2, the critical value is 5.99. The expected frequencies are: Design 1 Design 2 Design 3 Stud 24 27 9 Older 24 27 9 Chi-square = 7.94. Reject H0. 13. The null hypothesis states that there is no relationship between the type of music and whether the women give their phone numbers. With df = 1, the critical value is 3.84. The expected frequencies are: Phone Number No Number Rom 15 25 40 Neu 15 25 40 30 50 Chi-square = 7.68. Reject H0. 14. The null hypothesis states that the distribution of satisfaction scores is the same for both groups. With df = 1, the critical value is 3.84. The expected frequencies are: ________Satisfied Not Less reimt 55 45 100 Same or more 33 27 60 88 72 Chi-square = 8.73. Reject H0.

a. Reinforcement can be positive or negative

11. Which of the following statements are true? a. Reinforcement can be positive or negative b. Punishment is only negative c. Positive and negative mean good and bad d. Taking a substance to eliminate a headache is an example of positive reinforcement e. Taking a substance to increase muscle strength is an example of positive reinforcement

11. Problem 12 in Chapter 15 examined the relationship between weight and income for a sample of n = 10 women. Weights were classified in five categories and had a mean of M = 3 with SS = 20. Income, measured in thousands, had a mean score of M = 66 with SS = 7430, and SP = —359. a. Find the regression equation for predicting income from weight. (Identify the income scores as X values and the weight scores as Y values.) b. What percentage of the variance in the income is accounted for by the regression equation? (Compute the correlation, r, then find r2.) c. Does the regression equation account for a significant portion of the variance in income? Use a= .05 to evaluate the F-ratio. 12. A professor obtains SAT scores and freshman grade point averages (GPAs) for a group of n = 15 college students. The SAT scores have a mean of M = 580 with SS = 22,400, and the GPAs have a mean of 3.10 with SS = 1.26, and SP = 84. a. Find the regression equation for predicting GPA from SAT scores. b. What percentage of the variance in GPAs is accounted for by the regression equation? (Compute the correlation, r, then find r2.) c. Does the regression equation account for a significant portion of the variance in GPA? Use a= .05 to evaluate the F-ratio. (Ch 16, multiple regression 2)

11. a. SSweight = 20, SSincome = 7430, SP = -359. Ŷ = -17.95X + 119.85 b. r = -0.931 and r2 = 0.867 c. F = 52.15 with df = 1, 8. The regression equation is significant with = .05 or = .01. 12. a. b = 84/22,400 = 0.00375 and a = 3.10 - 0.00375(580) = 0.925. b. r = 0.50 and r2 = 0.25 or 25%. c. SSregression = 0.315 with df = 1, and SSresidual = 0.945 with df = 13. F = 0.315/0.073 = 4.32. With df = 1, 13 the F-ratio is not significant.

12. Judge and Cable (2010) report the results of a study demonstrating a negative relationship between weight and income for a group of women professionals. Following are data similar to those obtained in the study. To simplify the weight variable, the women are classified into five categories that measure actual weight relative to height, from 1 = thinnest to 5 = heaviest. Income figures are annual income (in thousands), rounded to the nearest $1,000. a. Calculate the Pearson correlation for these data. b. Is the correlation statistically significant? Use a two-tailed test with a = .05. Weight (X) Income (Y) 1 125 2 78 4 49 3 63 5 35 2 84 5 38 3 51 1 93 4 44 (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression) 13. The researchers cited in the previous problem also examined the weight/salary relationship for men and found a positive relationship, suggesting that we have very different standards for men than for women (Judge & Cable, 2010). The following are data similar to those obtained for working men. Again, weight relative to height is coded in five categories from 1 = thinnest to 5 = heaviest. Income is recorded as thousands earned annually. a. Calculate the Pearson correlation for these data. b. Is the correlation statistically significant? Use a two-tailed test with a = .05. Weight (X) Income (Y) 4 156 3 88 5 49 2 73 1 45 3 92 1 53 5 148 (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression) 14. Identifying individuals with a high risk of Alzheimer's disease usually involves a long series of cognitive tests. However, researchers have developed a 7-Minute Screen, which is a quick and easy way to accomplish the same goal. The question is whether the 7-Minute Screen is as effective as the complete series of tests. To address this question, Ijuin et al. (2008) administered both tests to a group of patients and compared the results. The following data represent results similar to those obtained in the study. Patient 7-Minute Screen Cognitive Series A 3 11 B 8 19 C 10 22 D 8 20 E. 4 14 F 7 13 G 4 9 H 5 20 I 14 25 a. Compute the Pearson correlation to measure the degree of relationship between the two test scores. b. Is the correlation statistically significant? Use a two-tailed test with a = .01. c. What percentage of variance for the cognitive scores is predicted from the 7-Minute Screen scores? (Compute the value of r2.) (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression)

12. a. For the weights, SS = 20 and for the incomes, SS = 7430. SP = -359. The correlation is r = -0.931. b. With n = 10, df = 8 and the critical value is 0.632. The correlation is significant 13. a. For the men's weights, SS = 18 and for their incomes, SS = 13,060. SP = 281. The correlation is r = 0.580. b. With n = 8, df = 6 and the critical value is 0.707. The correlation is not significant. 14. a. For these data, SS7min = 98, SScognitive = 236, and SP = 127. r = 0.835. b. With df = 7, the critical value is 0.798. The correlation is significant. c. r2 = 0.697 or 69.7%

13. Brunt, Rhee, and Zhong (2008) surveyed 557 undergraduate college students to examine their weight status, health behaviors, and diet. In a similar study, researchers used body mass index (BMI) to classify a group of students into four categories: underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese. The students were also surveyed to determine the number of fatty and/or sugary snacks they eat each day. The researchers would like to use to data to determine whether there is a relationship between weight status and diet. 14. A researcher would like to determine whether infants, age 2 to 3 months, show any evidence of color preference. The babies are positioned in front of a screen on which a set of four colored patches is presented. The four colors are red, green, blue, and yellow. The researcher measures the amount of time each infant looks at each of the four colors during a 30 second test period. The color with the greatest time is identified as the preferred color for the child. 15. A researcher administers a survey to graduating seniors, asking them to rate their optimism about the current job market on a 7-point scale. The researcher plans to use the results as part of a description of today's graduating seniors. 16. Standardized measures seem to indicate that the average level of anxiety has increased gradually over the past 50 years (Twenge, 2000). In the 1950s, the average score on the Child Manifest Anxiety Scale was p. = 15.1. A researcher administers the same test to a sample of n = 50 of today's children to determine whether there has been a significant change in the average anxiety level.

13. The mean and standard deviation could be used to describe the set of scores for each of the four weight groups. An independent-measures ANOVA would evaluate the significance of the mean differences and effect size would be measured by n^2. 14. The data could be described by the proportion for each color. A chi-square test for goodness of fit would determine whether there are significant preferences among the colors. 15. The mean and standard deviation rating could be used to describe the group. If the rating scale has a neutral point, a single-sample t test could be used to determine whether the mean optimism level is significantly different from neutral and Cohen's d or r2 could be used to measure effect size. 16. The mean and standard deviation could be used to describe the level of anxiety. A single-sample t test would determine whether there has been a significant change in anxiety since the 1950s. Effect size would be measured by Cohen's d or r^2.

13. Problem 14 in Chapter 15 described a study examining the effectiveness of a 7-Minute Screen test for Alzheimer's disease. The study evaluated the relationship between scores from the 7-Minute Screen and scores for the same patients from a set of cognitive exams that are typically used to test for Alzheimer's disease. For a sample of n = 9 patients, the scores for the 7-Minute Screen averaged M = 7 with SS = 92. The cognitive test scores averaged M = 17 with SS = 236. For these data, SP = 127. a. Find the regression equation for predicting the cognitive scores from the 7-Minute Screen score. b. What percentage of variance in the cognitive scores is accounted for by the regression equation? c. Does the regression equation account for a significant portion of the variance in the cognitive scores? Use a = .05 to evaluate the F-ratio. 14. There appears to be some evidence suggesting that earlier retirement may lead to memory decline (Rohwedder & Willis, 2010). The researchers gave a memory test to men and women aged 60 to 64 years in several countries that have different retirement ages. For each country, the researchers recorded the average memory score and the percentage of individuals in the 60 to 64 age range who were retired. Note that a higher percentage retired indicates a younger retirement age for that country. The following data are similar to the results from the study. Use the data to find the regression equation for predicting memory scores from the percentage of people aged 60 to 64 who are retired. Country % Retired (X) Memory Score (Y) Sweden 39 9.3 U.S.A. 48 10.9 England 59 10.7 Germany 70 9.1 Spain 74 6.4 Netherlands 78 9.1 Italy 81 7.2 France 87 7.9 Belgium 88 8.5 Austria 91 9.0 15. The regression equation is computed for a set of n = 18 pairs of X and Y values with a correlation of r = +80 and SSy = 100. a. Find the standard error of estimate for the regression equation. b. How big would the standard error be if the sample size were n = 38? (Ch 16, multiple regression 2)

13. a. Ŷ = 1.38X + 7.34 b. r2 = 0.743 or 74.3% c. F = 20.23 with df = 1, 7. The equation accounts for a significant portion of the variance. 14. Ŷ = -0.44X + 11.979 15. a. The standard error of estimate is √36/16 = 1.50. b. The standard error of estimate is √36/36 = 1.00.

14. The following data are from an experiment comparing three different treatment conditions: A 0 1 2 N = 15 2 5 5 1)(2 = 354 1 2 6 5 4 9 2 8 8 T= 10 T = 20 T = 30 SS = 14 SS = 30 SS = 30 a. If the experiment uses an independent-measures design, can the researcher conclude that the treatments are significantly different? Test at the .05 level of significance. b. If the experiment is done with a repeated-measures design, should the researcher conclude that the treatments are significantly different? Set alpha at .05 again. c. Explain why the analyses in parts a and b lead to different conclusions. 15. A researcher is evaluating customer satisfaction with the service and coverage of two phone carriers. Each individual in a sample of n = 25 uses one carrier for two weeks and then switches to the other. Each participant then rates the two carriers. The following table presents the results from the repeated-measures ANOVA comparing the average ratings. Fill in the missing values in the table. (Hint: Start with the df values.) Between treatments (MS:2) Error SS: 12 Total SS: 23 16. The following summary table presents the results from a repeated-measures ANOVA comparing three treatment conditions with a sample of n = 11 subjects. Fill in the missing values in the table. (Hint: Start with the df values.) F = 5.00 Within treatments (SS) = 80 Error (SS) = 80 17. The following summary table presents the results from a repeated-measures ANOVA comparing four treatment conditions, each with a sample of n = 12 participants. Fill in the missing values in the table. (Hint: Start with the df values.) Between treatments (SS): 54 Between treatments (MS): 20 Error (MS): 3 Total (SS): 194 18. A recent study indicates that simply giving college students a pedometer can result in increased walking (Jackson & Howton, 2008). Students were given pedometers for a I2-week period, and asked to record the average number of steps per day during weeks 1, 6, and 12. The following data are similar to the results obtained in the study. #steps (x1000) Week Participant 1 6 12 p A 6 8 10 24 B 4 5 6 15 C 5 5 5 15 G = 72 D 1 2 3 6 EX^2 = 400 E 0 1 2 3 F 2 3 4 9 T= 18 T = 24 T = 30 SS = 28 SS = 32 SS = 40 a. Use a repeated-measures ANOVA with a = .05 to determine whether the mean number of steps changes significantly from one week to another. b. Compute i12 to measure the size of the treatment effect. c. Write a sentence demonstrating how a research report would present the results of the hypothesis test and the measure of effect size. (Psy202, stats, Ch 13)

14. a. The null hypothesis states that there are no differences between treatments, H0: μ1 = μ2 = μ3. For an independent-measures design, the critical value is 3.88. F(2,12) = 3.24 Source SS df MS Between Treatments 40 2 20.00 Within Treatments 74 12 6.17 Total 114 14 b. The null hypothesis states that there are no differences between treatments, H0: μ1 = μ2 = μ3. For a repeated-measures design, the critical value is 4.46. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 40 2 20.0 F(2,8) = 8.00 Within Treatments 74 12 Between Subjects 54 4 Error 20 8 2.5 Total 114 14 c. The independent measures design includes all the individual differences in the error term (MSwithin). As a result the F‑ratio, F(2,12) = 3.24 is not significant. With a repeated measures design, the individual differences are removed and the result is a significant F‑ratio, F(2,8) = 8.00, p < .05. 15. F(1, 24)) = 4.00 Source SS df MS Between Treatments 2 1 2 Within Treatments 21 48 Between Subjects 9 24 Error 12 24 0.5 Total 23 49 16. F(2, 20) = 5.00 Source SS df MS Between Treatments 30 2 15 Within Treatments 80 30 Between Subjects 20 10 Error 60 20 3 Total 110 32 17. F(3, 33) = 6.00 Source SS df MS Between Treatments 54 3 18 Within Treatments 140 44 Between Subjects 41 11 Error 99 33 3 Total 194 47 18. a. The null hypothesis states that there are no differences among the three weeks. With df = 2, 10, the critical value is 4.10. F(2, 10) = 15 Source SS df MS Between Treatments 12 2 6 Within Treatments 100 15 Between Subjects 96 5 Error 4 10 0.4 Total 112 17 Reject H0. There are significant differences among the three weeks. b. For these data, η2 = 12/16 = 0.75. c. The analysis of variance shows significant mean differences in the number of steps among the three weeks that were tested, F(2, 10) = 15.00, p < .05, η2 = 0.75.

15. The following summary table presents the results from an ANOVA comparing three treatment conditions with n = 8 participants in each condition. Complete all missing values. (Hint: Start with the df column.) Between treat (MS): 15 Total (SS): 93 (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) 16. A pharmaceutical company has developed a drug that is expected to reduce hunger. To test the drug, two samples of rats are selected with n = 20 in each sample. The rats in the first sample receive the drug every day and those in the second sample are given a placebo. The dependent variable is the amount of food eaten by each rat over a 1-month period. An ANOVA is used to evaluate the difference between the two sample means and the results are reported in the following summary table. Fill in all missing values in the table. (Hint: Start with the df column.) Between Treatment (MS): 20 F=4.00 (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) 17. A developmental psychologist is examining the development of language skills from age 2 to age 4. Three different groups of children are obtained, one for each age, with n = 16 children in each group. Each child is given a language-skills assessment test. The resulting data were analyzed with an ANOVA to test for mean differences between age groups. The results of the ANOVA are presented in the following table. Fill in all missing values. Between treat (SS)=20 Total (SS)= 200 (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) 18. The following data were obtained from an independent-measures research study comparing three treatment conditions. Use an ANOVA with a = .05 to determine whether there are any significant mean differences among the treatments. Treatment I II III 2 5 7 N = 14 5 2 3 G = 42 0 1 6 EX^2 = 182 1 2 4 2 2 T= 12 T= 10 T= 20 SS = 14 SS = 9 SS = 10 (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) 9. The following values summarize the results from an independent-measures study comparing two treatment conditions. a. Use an independent-measures t test with a = .05 to determine whether there is a significant mean difference between the two treatments. b. Use an ANOVA with a = .05 to determine whether there is a significant mean difference between the two treatments. Treatment I II n= 8 n= 4 M= 4 M = 10 N = 12 T = 32 T = 40 G = 72 SS = 45 SS = 15 EX^2 = 588 (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests)

15. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 30 2 15 F = 5 Within Treatments 63 21 3 Total 93 23 16. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 20 1 20 F = 4.00 Within Treatments 190 38 5 Total 210 39 17. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 20 2 10 F = 2.50 Within Treatments 180 45 4 Total 200 47 18. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 23 2 11.5 F(2, 11) = 3.83 Within Treatments 33 11 3 Total 56 13 With df = 2, 11, the critical value for α = .05 is 3.98. Fail to reject the null hypothesis. 19. a. The pooled variance is 6, the estimated standard error is 1.50 and t(10) = 4.00. With df = 10, the critical value is 2.228. Reject the null hypothesis. b. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 96 1 96 F(1, 10) = 16 Within Treatments 60 10 6 Total 156 11 With df = 1, 10, the critical value is 4.96. Reject the null hypothesis. Note that F = t2.

15. A local county is considering a budget proposal that would allocate extra funding toward the renovation of city parks. A survey is conducted to measure public opinion concerning the proposal. A total of 150 individuals respond to the survey: 50 who live within the city limits and 100 from the surrounding suburbs. The frequency distribution is as follows: Opinion Favor Oppose City 35 15 50 Suburb 55 45 100 a. Is there a significant difference in the distribution of opinions for city residents compared to those in the suburbs? Test at the .05 level of significance. b. The relationship between home location and opinion can also be evaluated using the phicoefficient. If the phi-coefficient were computed for these data, what value would be obtained for phi? (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test) 16. The data from problem 15 show no significant difference between the opinions for city residents and those who live in the suburbs. To construct the following data, we simply doubled the sample size from problem 15 so that all of the individual frequencies are twice as big. Notice that the sample proportions have not changed. Opinion Favor Oppose 70 30 100 110 90 200 180 120 a. Test for a significant difference between the city distribution and the suburb distribution using a = .05. How does the decision compare with the decision in problem 14? You should find that a larger sample increases the likelihood of a significant result. b. Compute the phi-coefficient for these data and compare it with the result from problem 15. You should find that the sample size has no effect on the strength of the relationship. (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test) 17. In the Preview for this chapter, we discussed a study investigating the relationship between memory for eyewitnesses and the questions they are asked (Loftus & Palmer, 1974). In the study, participants watched a film of an automobile accident and then were questioned about the accident. One group was asked how fast the cars were going when they "smashed into" each other. A second group was asked about the speed when the cars "hit" each other, and a third group was not asked any question about the speed of the cars. A week later, the participants returned to answer additional questions about the accident, including whether they recalled seeing any broken glass. Although there was no broken glass in the film, several students claimed to remember seeing it. The following table shows the frequency distribution of responses for each group. Response to the Question "Did You See Any Broken Glass?" Yes No Smashed into 16 34 Hit 7 43 Control 6 44 a. Does the proportion of participants who claim to remember broken glass differ significantly from group to group? Test with a = .05. b. Compute Cramers V to measure the size of the treatment effect. c. Describe how the phrasing of the question influenced the participants' memories. d. Write a sentence demonstrating how the outcome of the hypothesis test and the measure of effect size would be reported in a journal article. (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test) 18. In a study investigating freshman weight gain, the researchers also looked at gender differences in weight (Kasparek, Corwin, Valois, Sargent, & Morris, 2008). THey computed the body mass index (BMI) for each student Using self-reported heights and weights the students were classified as either desirable weight or overweight. When the students were further classified by gender the researchers found similar frequencies in the following table Desirable Weight Overweight Male 74 46 Female 62 18 a. Do the data indicate that the proportion of overweight men is significantly different from the proportion of overweight women? Test with a = .05. b. Compute the phi-coefficient to measure the strength between the actual preferences for the men and the of the relationship. c. Write a sentence demonstrating how the outcome of the hypothesis test and the measure of effect size would be reported in a journal article. (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test)

15. a. The null hypothesis states that the distribution of opinions is the same for those who live in the city and those who live in the suburbs. For df = 1 and α = .05, the critical value for chi-square is 3.84. The expected frequencies are: Favor Oppose City 50 20 Suburb 60 40 For these data, chi-square = 3.12 Fail to reject H0 and conclude that opinions in the city are not different from those in the suburbs. b. The phi coefficient is 0.144. 16. a. The null hypothesis states that the distribution of opinions is the same for those who live in the city and those who live in the suburbs. For df = 1 and α = .05, the critical value for chi-square is 3.84. The expected frequencies are: Favor Oppose City 60 40 Suburb 120 80 For these data, chi-square = 6.25. Reject H0 and conclude that opinions in the city are different from those in the suburbs. The larger sample produces a significant relationship. b. The phi coefficient is still 0.144. The sample size has no effect on the strength of the relationship. 17. a. The null hypothesis states that the proportion who falsely recall seeing broken glass should be the same for all three groups. The expected frequency of saying yes is 9.67 for all groups, and the expected frequency for saying no is 40.33 for all groups. With df = 2, the critical value is 5.99. For these data, chi-square = 7.78. Reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the likelihood of recalling broken glass is depends on the question that the participants were asked. b. Cramérs V = 0.228. c. Participants who were asked abou the speed with the cars "smashed into" each other, were more than two times more likely to falsely recall seeing broken glass. d. The results of the chi-square test indicate that the phrasing of the question had a significant effect on the participants' recall of the accident, χ2(2, N = 150) = 7.78, p < .05, V = 0.228. 18. a. The null hypothesis states that the distribution of weights for men is the same as the distribution for women. The expected frequencies are 81.6 desirable and 38.4 overweight for men, and 54.4 desirable and 25.6 overweight for women. With df = 1, the critical value is 3.84. For these data, chi-square = 5.53. Reject the null hypothesis. b. The phi-coefficient is 0.166. c. The chi-square test shows that the proportion of men who are overweight is significantly greater than the proportion of women, χ2(1, N = 200) = 5.53, p < .05, φ = 0.166.

15. Assuming a two-tailed test with a = .05, how large a correlation is needed to be statistically significant for each of the following samples? a. A sample of n = 8 b. A sample of n = 18 c. A sample of n = 28 (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression) 16. As we have noted in previous chapters, even a very small effect can be significant if the sample is large enough. For each of the following, determine how large a sample is necessary for the correlation to be significant. Assume a two-tailed test with a = .05. (Note: The table does not list all the possible df values. Use the sample size corresponding to the appropriate df value that is listed in the table.) a. A correlation of r = 0.30. b. A correlation of r = 0.25. c. A correlation of r = 0.20 (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression) 17. A researcher measures three variables, X, Y, and Z, for each individual in a sample of n = 25. The Pearson correlations for this sample are rxy = 0.8, rxz = 0.6, and ryz = 0.7. a. Find the partial correlation between X and Y, holding Z constant. b. Find the partial correlation between X and Z, holding Y constant. (Hint: Simply switch the labels for the variables Y and Z to correspond with the labels in the equation.) (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression)

15. a. r = 0.707 b. r = 0.468 c. r = 0.374 16. a. n = 47 or more b. n = 62 or more c. n = 102 or more 17. a. rXY-Z = 0.38/0.57 = 0.667 b. rXZ-Y = 0.04/0.428 = 0.093

15. Assuming a two-tailed test with a = .05, how large a correlation is needed to be statistically significant for each of the following samples? a. A sample of n = 8 b. A sample of n = 18 c. A sample of n = 28 16. As we have noted in previous chapters, even a very small effect can be significant if the sample is large enough. For each of the following, determine how large a sample is necessary for the correlation to be significant. Assume a two-tailed test with a = .05. (Note: The table does not list all the possible df values. Use the sample size corresponding to the appropriate df value that is listed in the table.) a. A correlation of r = 0.30. b. A correlation of r = 0.25. c. A correlation of r = 0.20. 17. A researcher measures three variables, X, Y, and Z, for each individual in a sample of n = 25. The Pearson correlations for this sample are rxy = 0.8, rxz = 0.6, and ryz = 0.7. a. Find the partial correlation between X and Y, holding Z constant. b. Find the partial correlation between X and Z, holding Y constant. (Hint: Simply switch the labels for the variables Y and Z to correspond with the labels in the equation.) 19. A common concern for students (and teachers) is the assignment of grades for essays or term papers. Because there are no absolute right or wrong answers, these grades must be based on a judgment of quality. To demonstrate that these judgments actually are reliable, an English instructor asked a colleague to rank-order a set of term papers. The ranks and the instructor's grades for these papers are as follows: Rank Grade 1 A 2 B 3 A 4 B 5 B 6 C 7 D 8 C 9 C 10 D 11 F a. Compute the Spearman correlation for these data. (Note: You must convert the letter grades to ranks, using tied ranks to represent tied grades.) b. Is the Spearman correlation statistically significant? Use a two-tailed test with a = .05. 24. Studies have shown that people with high intelligence are generally more likely to volunteer as participants in research, but not for research that involves unusual experiences such as hypnosis. To examine this phenomenon, a researcher administers a questionnaire to a sample of college students. The survey asks for the student's grade point average (as a measure of intelligence) and whether the student would like to take part in a future study in which participants would be hypnotized. The results showed that 7 of the 10 lower-intelligence people were willing to participant but only 2 of the 10 higher-intelligence people were willing. a. Convert the data to a form suitable for computing the phi-coefficient. (Code the two intelligence categories as 0 and I for the X variable, and code the willingness to participate as 0 and I for the Y variable.) b. Compute the phi-coefficient for the data.

15. a. r = 0.707 b. r = 0.468 c. r = 0.374 16. a. n = 47 or more b. n = 62 or more c. n = 102 or more 17. a. rXY-Z = 0.38/0.57 = 0.667 b. rXZ-Y = 0.04/0.428 = 0.093 19. a. rS = +0.907 b. With n = 11, the critical value is 0.618. The correlation is significant. 24. The converted data show eight people with scores of 0, 0; two people with scores of 0, 1; three people with scores of 1, 0; and seven people with scores of 1, 1. (Note: Any two different numbers can be used for the X and Y values.) The correlation is 0.503.

16. a. One set of 20 pairs of scores, X and Y values, produces a correlation of r = 0.70. If SSy = 150, find the standard error of estimate for the regression line. b. A second set of 20 pairs of X and Y values produces of correlation of r = 0.30. If SSy = 150, find the standard error of estimate for the regression line. 17. a. A researcher computes the regression equation for a sample of n = 25 pairs of scores, X and Y values. If an analysis of regression is used to test the significance of the equation, what are the df values for the F-ratio? b. A researcher evaluating the significance of a regression equation obtains an F-ratio with df = 1, 18. How many pairs of scores, X and Y values, are in the sample? 18. For the following data: a. Find the regression equation for predicting Y from X. b. Use the regression equation to find a predicted Y for each X. c. Find the difference between the actual Y value and the predicted Y value for each individual, square the differences, and add the squared values to obtain SSresidual• d. Calculate the Pearson correlation for these data. Use r2 and SSy to compute SSresidual with Equation 16.11. You should obtain the same value as in part c. X Y 7 16 5 2 6 1 3 2 4 9 (Ch 16, multiple regression 2)

16. a. SSresidual = 76.5 and the standard error of estimate is 2.06. b. SSresidual = 136.5 and the standard error of estimate is 2.75. 17. a df = 1, 23 b. n = 20 pairs of scores 18. a. SSX = 10 SP = 20 Ŷ = 2X - 4 b. & c. -------------------------- Squared Y Ŷ Residual Residual -------------------------- 16 10 +6 36 2 6 -4 16 1 8 -7 49 2 2 0 0 9 4 +5 25 -------------------------- 126 = SSresidual d. SSY = 166 r = 20/40.74 = 0.491 (1 - r2) = .759 r2(SSY) = 126

17. Belsky, Weinraub, Owen, and Kelly (2001) reported on the effects of preschool childcare on the development of young children. One result suggests that children who spend more time away from their mothers are more likely to show behavioral problems in kindergarten. Suppose that a kindergarten teacher is asked rank order the degree of disruptive behavior for the n = 20 children in the class. a. Researchers then separate the students into two groups: children with a history of preschool and children with little or no experience in preschool. The researchers plan to compare the ranks for the two groups. b. The researchers interview each child's parents to determine how much time the child spent in preschool. The children are then ranked according to the amount of preschool experience. The researchers plan to use the data to determine whether there is a relationship between preschool experience and disruptive behavior. 18. McGee and Shevlin (2009) found that an individual's sense of humor had a significant effect on how attractive the individual was perceived to be by others. In a similar study, female college students were given brief descriptions of three potential romantic partners. One was identified as the target and was described positively as being single, ambitious, and having good job prospects. For half of the participants, the description also said that he had a great sense of humor. For another half, it said that he has no sense of humor. After reading the three descriptions, the participants were asked to rank the three men 1st, 2nd, and 3rd in terms of attractiveness. For each of the two groups, the researchers recorded the number of times the target was placed in each ordinal position. 19. Numerous studies have found that males report higher self-esteem than females, especially for adolescents (Kling, Hyde, Showers, & Buswell, 1999). A recent study found that males scored an average of 8 points higher than females on a standardized questionnaire measuring self-esteem. The researcher would like to know whether this is a significant difference. 20. Research has demonstrated that IQ scores have been increasing, generation by generation, for years (Flynn, 1999). A researcher would like to determine whether this trend can be described by a linear equation showing the relationship between age and IQ scores. The same IQ test is given to a sample of 100 adults who range in age from 20 to 85 years. The age and IQ score are recorded for each person.

17. a. The data could be described by how the higher and lower ranks are clustered in the two groups. A Mann-Whitney test could determine whether there is a significant difference between the groups. b. With two ordinal scores for each child, a Spearman correlation could measure and describe the relationship between variables. The significance of the correlation could be determined by comparing the sample value with the critical values listed in Table B7. 18. The data would form a 23 frequency distribution matrix and the proportion in each cell would describe the results. A chi-square test for independence would determine whether the proportions are significantly different from one birth order group to another. Effect size would be measured with Cramér's V. Alternatively, the data form two sets of scores, with the score for each participant being the rank (1, 2, 3) she assigned to the participant. A Mann-Whitney test could evaluate the significance of the difference between groups. 19. The mean and standard deviation could be used to describe the set of scores for each group. An independent-measures t test would evaluate the significance of the mean difference and effect size would be measured by Cohen's d or r^2. 20. The linear regression equation, using age to predict IQ, could be used to describe the relationship. The slope would describe the amount that IQ changes each year. Analysis of regression would determine the significance of the equation and the squared correlation would measure the strength of the relationship.

18. A researcher records the annual number of serious crimes and the amount spent on crime prevention for several small towns, medium cities, and large cities across the country. The resulting data show a strong positive correlation between the number of serious crimes and the amount spent on crime prevention. However, the researcher suspects that the positive correlation is actually caused by population; as population increases, both the amount spent on crime prevention and the number of crimes also increases. If population is controlled, there probably should be a negative correlation between the amount spent on crime prevention and the number of serious crimes. The following data show the pattern of results obtained. Note that the municipalities are coded in three categories. Use a partial correlation, holding population constant, to measure the true relationship between crime rate and the amount spent on prevention. Number of Amount for Population Crimes Prevention Size 3 6 1 4 7 1 6 3 1 7 4 1 8 11 2 9 12 2 11 8 2 12 9 2 13 16 3 14 17 3 16 13 3 17 14 3 (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression) 19. A common concern for students (and teachers) is the assignment of grades for essays or term papers. Because there are no absolute right or wrong answers, these grades must be based on a judgment of quality. To demonstrate that these judgments actually are reliable, an English instructor asked a colleague to rank-order a set of term papers. The ranks and the instructor's grades for these papers are as follows: Rank Grade 1 A 2 B 3 A 4 B 5 B 6 C 7 D 8 C 9 C 10 D 11 F a. Compute the Spearman correlation for these data. (Note: You must convert the letter grades to ranks, using tied ranks to represent tied grades.) b. Is the Spearman correlation statistically significant? Use a two-tailed test with a = .05. (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression) 20. It appears that there is a significant relationship between cognitive ability and social status, at least for birds. Boogert, Reader, and Laland (2006) measured social status and individual learning ability for a group of starlings. The following data represent results similar to those obtained in the study. Because social status is an ordinal variable consisting of five ordered these data. Convert the social status categories and the learning scores to ranks, and compute the Spearman correlation. Subject Social Status Learning Score A 1 3 B 3 10 C 2 7 D 3 11 E 5 19 F 4 17 G 5 17 H 2 4 I 4 12 J 2 3 (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression) 21. Problem 12 presented data showing a negative relationship between weight and income for a sample of working women. However, weight was coded in five categories, which could be viewed as an ordinal scale rather than an interval or ratio scale. If so, a Spearman correlation is more appropriate than a Pearson correlation. a. Convert the weights and the incomes into ranks and compute the Spearman correlation for the scores in problem 12. b. Is the Spearman correlation large enough to be significant? (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression)

18. The correlation between crime and amount spent is r = 0.765, the correlation between crime and population is r = 0.933, and the correlation between amount spent and population is 0.933. The partial correlation between crimes and amount spent is r = -0.808. Controlling population produces a strong negative relationship between the amount spent for crime prevention and the number of serious crimes. 19. a. rS = +0.907 b. With n = 11, the critical value is 0.618. The correlation is significant. 20. rS = +0.960 21. a. rS = -0.985 b. For n = 10, ;the critical values are 0.648 and 0.794 for .05 and .01, respectively. The correlation is significant at either alpha level.

19. Research results suggest that IQ scores for boys are more variable than IQ scores for girls (Arden & Plomin, 2006). A typical study looking at 10-year-old children classifies participants by gender and by low, average, or high IQ. Following are hypothetical data representing the research results. Do the data indicate a significant difference between the frequency distributions for males and females? Test at the .05 level of significance and describe the difference. IQ Low Average High Boys 18 42 20 80 12 54 14 80 n = 160 (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test) 20. Gender differences in dream content are well documented (see Winget & Kramer, 1979). Suppose a researcher studies aggression content in the dreams of men and women. Each participant reports his or her most recent dream. Then each dream is judged by a panel of experts to have low, medium, or high aggression content. The observed frequencies are shown in the following matrix: Aggression Content Low Medium High 18 4 2 4 17 15 Is there a relationship between gender and the aggression content of dreams? Test with a = .01. (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test) 21. In a study similar to one conducted by Fallon and Rozin (1985), a psychologist prepared a set of silhouettes showing different female body shapes ranging from somewhat thin to somewhat heavy and asked a group of women to indicate which body figure Males 74 46 they thought men would consider the most attractive. Then a group of men were shown the same set of Females 62 18 profiles and asked which image they considered the most attractive. The following hypothetical data show the number of individuals who selected each of the four body image profiles. a. Do the data indicate a significant difference between the actual preferences for the men and the preferences predicted by the women? Test at the .05 level of significance. b. Compute the phi-coefficient to measure the strength of the relationship. Body Image Profiles Somewhat Slightly Slightly Somewhat Thin Thin Heavy Heavy W 29 25 18 8 11 15 22 12 40 40 40 20 (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test)

19. The null hypothesis states that IQ and gender are independent. The distribution of IQ scores for boys should be the same as the distribution for girls. With df = 2 and and α = .05, the critical value is 5.99. The expected frequencies are 15 low IQ, 48 medium, and 17 high for both boys and girls. For these data, chi-square is 3.76. Fail to reject the null hypothesis. These data do not provide evidence for a significant relationship between IQ and gender. 20. The null hypothesis states that there is no relationship between dream content and gender; the distribution of aggression content should be the same for males and females. The critical value is 9.21. The expected frequencies are: Low Medium High Female 8.8 8.4 6.8 Male 13.2 12.6 10.2 The chi-square statistic is 25.52. Reject H0 with α = .01 and df = 2. 21. The null hypothesis states that there is no difference between the distribution of preferences predicted by women and the actual distribution for men. With df = 3 and theta = .05, the critical value is 7.81. The expected frequencies are: somewhat slight slight somewhat thin thin heavy heavy Women 22.9 22.9 22.9 11.4 Men 17.1 17.1 17.1 8.6 Chi square = 9.13. Reject H0 and conclude that there is a significant difference in the preferences predicted by women and the actual preferences expressed by men.

19. A multiple-regression equation with two predictor variables produces R2 = .22. a. If SSy = 20 for a sample of n = 18 individuals, does the equation predict a significant portion of the variance for the Y scores? Test with a = .05. b. If SSy = 20 for a sample of n = 8 individuals, does the equation predict a significant portion of the variance for the Y scores? Test with a =.05. 20. A researcher obtained the following multipleregression equation using two predictor variables: Y = 0.5X1 + 4.5X2 + 9.6. Given that SSy = 210, the SP value for XI and Y is 40, and the SP value for X2 and Y is 9, find R2, the percentage of variance accounted for by the equation. 21. In Chapter 15 (p. 531), we presented an example showing the general relationship among the number of churches, the number of serious crimes, and the population for a set of cities. At that time, we used a partial correlation to evaluate the relationship between churches and crime while controlling population. It is possible to use multiple regression to accomplish essentially the same purpose. For the following data, Churches Population Number of (X1) (X2) crime 2 1 4 3 1 1 4 1 2 5 1 3 7 2 8 8 2 11 9 2 9 10 2 7 11 2 10 13 3 15 14 3 14 I5 3 16 16 3 17 17 3 13 a. Find the multiple regression equation for predicting the number of crimes using the number of churches and population as predictor variables. b. Find the value of R2 for the regression equation. c. The correlation between the number of crimes and population is r = 0.961, which means that r2 = .924 (92.4%) is the proportion of variance in the number of crimes that is predicted by population size. Does adding the number of churches as a second variable in the multiple regression equation add a significant amount to the prediction? Test with a = .05. (Ch 16, multiple regression 2)

19. a. F = 2.2/1.04 = 2.11. With df = 2, 15, the critical value is 3.68. The equation does not account for a significant portion of the variance. b. F = 2.2/3.12 = 0.705. The equation is not significant. 20. R2 = [0.5(40) + 4.5(9)]/210 = 0.288 or 28.8%. 21. a. SSchurches = 390, SSpopulation = 10, and SScrime = 390. SP for churches and population is 60, SP for churches and crime is 363, and SP for population and crime is 60. The regression equation is . Ŷ = 0.1X1 + 5.4X2 - 2.7. b. R2 = 0.924 or 92.4% c. Population by itself predicts 92.4% of the variance. Nothing is gained by adding churches as a second variable.

19. A repeated-measures experiment comparing only two treatments can be evaluated with either a t statistic or an ANOVA. As we found with the independentmeasures design, the t test and the ANOVA produce equivalent conclusions, and the two test statistics are related by the equation F = t2. The following data are from a repeated-measures study: Subject Treatment 1 Treatment 2 Difference 1 2 4 +2 2 1 3 +2 3 0 10 +10 4 1 3 +2 a. Use a repeated-measures t statistic with a = .05 to determine whether the data provide evidence of a significant difference between the two treatments. (Caution: ANOVA calculations are done with the X values, but for t you use the difference scores.) b. Use a repeated-measures ANOVA with a = .05 to evaluate the data. (You should find F = 12.) 20. For either independent-measures or repeated-measures esigns comparing two treatments, the mean difference an be evaluated with either a t test or an ANOVA. The two tests are related by the equation F = t2. For the following data, a. Use a repeated-measures t test with a = .05 to determine whether the mean difference between treatments is statistically significant. b. Use a repeated-measures ANOVA with a = .05 to determine whether the mean difference between treatments is statistically significant. (You should find that F = t2.) Person Treatment 1 Treatment 2 Difference A 4 7 3 B 2 11 9 C 3 6 3 D 7 10 3 M= 4 M = 8.5 MD = 4.5 T= 16 T = 34 SS = 14 SS = 17 SS = 27 (Psy202, stats, Ch 13)

19. a. The null hypothesis states that there is no difference between the two treatments, H0: μD = 0. The critical region consists of t values beyond ±3.182. The mean difference is MD = +4. SS for the difference scores is 48, and t(3) = 2.00. Fail to reject H0. b. The null hypothesis states that there is no mean difference between treatments, H0: μ1 = μ2. The critical value is F = 10.13. F(1,3) = 4.00 Source SS df MS Between Treatments 32 1 32 Within Treatments 36 6 Between Subjects 12 3 Error 24 3 8 Total 68 7 Fail to reject H0. Note that F = t2. 20. a. The null hypothesis states that there is no difference between the two treatments, H0: μD = 0. The critical region consists of t values beyond ±3.182. The mean difference is MD = 4.5. The variance for the difference scores is 9, the estimated standard error is 1.50, and t(3) = 3.00. Fail to reject H0. b. The null hypothesis states that there is no difference between treatments, H0: μ1 = μ2. The critical value is F = 10.13. F(1, 3) = 9.00 Source SS df MS Between Treatments 40.5 1 40.5 Within Treatments 31 6 Between Subjects 17.5 3 Error 13.5 3 4.5 Total 71.5 7 Fail to reject H0. Note that F = t2.

2. The following data summarize the results from a two-factor independent- measures experiment: B1 B2 B3 A1 n=10 n=10 n=10 T= 0 T=10 T=20 SS=30 SS=40 SS=50 A2 n=10 n=10 n=10 T=40 T=30 T=20 SS=60 SS=50 SS=40 a. Calculate the totals for each level of factor A, and compute SS for factor A. b. Calculate the totals for factor B, and compute SS for this factor. (Note: You should find that the totals for B are all the same, so there is no variability for this factor.) c. Given that the between-treatments (or between-cells) SS is equal to 100, what is the SS for the interaction? (Stats Ch 14 - 2 factor ANOVA)

2. a. The totals for factor A are 30 and 90, and each total is obtained by adding 30 scores. SSA = 60. b. All three totals for factor B are equal to 40. Because they are all the same, there is no variability, and SSB = 0. c. The interaction is determined by differences that remain after the main effects have been accounted for. For these data, SSAxB = SSbetween treatments — SSA — SSB = 100 — 60 — 0 = 40

1. Sketch a graph showing the line for the equation Y = —2X + 4. On the same graph, show the line for Y = X —4. 2. The regression equation is intended to be the "best fitting" straight line for a set of data. What is the criterion for "best fitting"? 3. A set of n = 20 pairs of scores (X and Y values) has SSx = 16, SSy = 100, and SP = 32. If the mean for the X values is Mx = 6 and the mean for the Y values is My = 20. a. Calculate the Pearson correlation for the scores. b. Find the regression equation for predicting Y from the X values. 4. A set of n = 25 pairs of scores (X and Y values) produces a regression equation of Y= 3X — 2. Find the predicted Y value for each of the following X scores: 0, I, 3, —2. 5. Briefly explain what is measured by the standard error of estimate. (Ch 16, multiple regression 2)

2. The best fitting line is determined by the error between the predicted Y values on the line and the actual Y values in the data. The regression equation is determined by the line with the smallest total squared error. 3. a. r = 0.80 b. Ŷ = 2X + 8 4. X Ŷ 0 -2 1 1 3 7 -2 -8 5. The standard error of estimate is a measure of the average distance between the predicted Y points from the regression equation and the actual Y points in the data.

20. The following data represent the results from an independent-measures study comparing two treatment conditions. a. Use an independent-measures t test with a = .05 to determine whether there is a significant mean difference between the two treatments. b. Use an ANOVA with a = .05 to determine whether there is a significant mean difference between the two treatments. Treatment I II 8 2 N= 10 7 3 G = 50 6 3 EX2 = 306 5 5 9 2 M = 7 M = 3 T = 35 T= 15 SS = 10 SS = 6 21. One possible explanation for why some birds migrate and others maintain year round residency in a single location is intelligence. Specifically, birds with small brains, relative to their body size, are simply not smart enough to find food during the winter and must migrate to warmer climates where food is easily available (Sol, Lefebvre, & Rodriguez-Teijeiro, 2005). Birds with bigger brains, on the other hand, are more creative and can find food even when the weather turns harsh. Following are hypothetical data similar to the actual research results. The numbers represent relative brain size for the individual birds in each sample. NonMigrating (I) ShortDistance Migrants (II) LongDistance Migrants (III) I II III 18 6 4 N = 18 13 11 9 G = 180 19 7 5 EX^2 = 2150 12 9 6 16 8 5 12 13 7 M = 15 M= 9 M = 6 T = 90 T = 54 T = 36 SS = 48 SS = 34 SS = 16 a. Use an ANOVA with a = .05 to determine whether there are any significant mean differences among the three groups of birds. b. Compute 9'12, the percentage of variance explained by the group differences, for these data. c. Write a sentence demonstrating how a research report would present the results of the hypothesis test and the measure of effect size. d. Use the Tukey HSD posttest to determine which groups are significantly different. (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) 22. There is some research indicating that college students who use Facebook while studying tend to have lower grades than non-users (Kirschner & Karpinski, 2010). A representative study surveys students to determine the amount of Facebook use during the time they are studying or doing homework. Based on the amount of time spent on Facebook, students are classified into three groups and their grade point averages are recorded. The following data show the typical pattern of results. Facebook Use While Studying Non-User (I) Rarely Use (II) Regularly Use (III) I II III 3.70 3.51 3.02 3.45 3.42 2.84 2.98 3.81 3.42 3.94 3.15 3.10 3.82 3.64 2.74 3.68 3.20 3.22 3.90 2.95 2.58 4.00 3.55 3.07 3.75 3.92 3.31 3.88 3.45 2.80 . Use an ANOVA with a = .05 to determine whether there are significant mean differences among the three groups. b. Compute q2 to measure the size of the effect. c. Write a sentence demonstrating how the result from the hypothesis test and the measure of effect size would appear in a research report. (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) 23. New research suggests that watching television, especially medical shows such as Grey's Anatomy and House can result in more concern about personal health (Ye, 2010). Surveys administered to college students measure television viewing habits and health concerns such as fear of developing the diseases and disorders seen on television. For the following data, students are classified into three categories based on their television viewing patterns and health concerns are measured on a 10-point scale with 0 indicating "none." Television Viewing Little or None (I) Moderate (II) Substantial (III) I II III 4 5 5 2 7 7 5 3 6 1 4 6 3 8 8 7 6 9 4 2 6 4 7 4 8 3 6 2 5 8 a. Use an ANOVA with a = .05 to determine whether there are significant mean differences among the three groups. b. Compute i2 to measure the size of the effect. c. Use Tukey's HSD test with a = .05 to determine which groups are significantly different. (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests)

20. a. The pooled variance is 2, the estimated standard error is 0.894 and t(8) = 4.47. With df = 8, the critical value is 2.306. Reject the null hypothesis. b. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 40 1 40 F(1, 8) = 20 Within Treatments 16 8 2 Total 56 9 With df = 1, 8, the critical value is 5.32. Reject the null hypothesis. Within rounding error, note that F = t2. 21. a. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 252 2 126 F(2, 15) = 19.30 Within Treatments 98 15 6.53 Total 350 17 With df = 2, 15 the critical value is 3.68. Reject the null hypothesis. b. The percentage of variance explained by the mean differences is η2 = 0.72 or 72%. c. The analysis of variance shows significant differences in average brain size among the three groups of birds, F(2, 15) = 19.30, p < .01, η2 = 0.72. c. With k = 3 groups and df = 15, q = 3.67. The HSD = 3.83. The non-migrating birds are significantly different from either other group, but there is no significant difference between the short- and long-distance migrants. 22. a. The means and standard deviations are Non-user Rarely Regularly M = 3.71 M = 3.46 M = 3.01 s = 10 s = 18 s = 14 Source SS df MS Between Treatments 2.517 2 1.258 F(2, 27) = 14.98 Within Treatments 2.265 27 0.084 Total 4.781 29 With df = 2, 27 the critical value is 3.35. Reject the null hypothesis. b. n2 = 2.517/4.781 = 0.526 c. The results show significant differences in mean grade point averages between groups, F(2, 27 ) = 14.98, p < .05, n2 = 0.526. 23. a. The means and standard deviations are Little Moderate Substantial M = 4.00 M = 5.00 M = 6.50 s = 2.11 s = 2.00 s = 1.51 Source SS df MS Between Treatments 31.67 2 15.83 F(2, 27) = 4.25 Within Treatments 100.50 27 3.72 Total 132.17 29 With df = 2, 27 the critical value is 3.35. Reject the null hypothesis. b. 2 = 31.67/132.17 = 0.240 c. Tukey's HSD = 3.49(0.610) = 2.13 (using df = 30). The only significant mean difference is between those who watch little or no TV and those whose viewing is substantial.

21. A researcher is investigating the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment for chronic back pain. A sample of n = 20 participants is obtained from a pain clinic. Each individual rates the current level of pain and then begins a 6-week program of acupuncture treatment. At the end of the program, the pain level is rated again and the researcher records whether the pain has increased or decreased for each participant. 22. Research results indicate that physically attractive people are also perceived as being more intelligent (Eagly, Ashmore, Makhijani, & Longo, 1991). As a demonstration of this phenomenon, a researcher obtained a set of n = 25 photographs of male college students. The photographs were shown to a sample of female college students who used a 7-point scale to rate several characteristics, including intelligence and attractiveness, for the person in each photo. The average attractiveness rating and the average intelligence rating were computed for each photograph. The researcher plans to use the averages to determine whether there is relationship between perceived attractiveness and perceived intelligence. 23. Research has shown that people are more likely to show dishonest and self-interested behaviors in darkness than in a well-lit environment (Zhong, Bohns, & Gino, 2010). In a related experiment, students were given a quiz and then asked to grade their own papers while the teacher read the correct answers. One group of students was tested in a well-lit room and another group was tested in a dimly-lit room. The researchers recorded the number of correct answers reported by each student to determine whether there was a significant difference between the two groups. 24. There is some evidence suggesting that you are likely to improve your test score if you rethink and change answers on a multiple-choice exam (Johnston, 1975). To examine this phenomenon, a teacher encouraged students to reconsider their answers before turning in exams. Students were asked to record their original answers and the changes that they made. When the exams were collected, the teacher found that 18 students improved their grades by changing answers and only 7 students had lower grades with the changes. The teacher would like to know if this is a statistically significant result. 25. A researcher is evaluating customer satisfaction with the service and coverage of three phone carriers. Each individual in a sample of n = 25 uses one carrier for 2 weeks, then switches to another for 2 weeks, and finally switches to the third for 2 weeks. Each participant then rates the three carriers. a. Assume that each carrier was rated on a 10-point scale. b. Assume that each participant ranked the three carriers 1st, 2nd and 3rd. c. Assume the each participant simply identified the most preferred carrier of the three.

21. The proportion or percentage showing decreased pain could be used to describe the results. A binomial sign test would evaluate the significance of the treatment 22. The 25 pairs of scores (one pair for each photograph) could be used to compute a Pearson correlation, which describes the relationship between attractiveness and intelligence. The significance of the correlation could be evaluated by comparing the sample correlation with the list of critical values in Table B6. 23. The mean and standard deviation could be used to describe the set of scores for each group. An independent-measures t test would evaluate the significance of the mean difference and effect size would be measured by Cohen's d or r2. 24. A chi-square test for goodness of fit could be used to determine if the observed proportions of increases and decreases are significantly different from chance. A binomial sign test could also be used to evaluate the significance of the proportions. 25. a. The mean and standard deviation could be used to describe the set of scores for each carrier. A repeated-measures ANOVA would evaluate the significance of the mean differences and effect size would be measured by 2. b. The data would form a 33 frequency distribution matrix and the proportion in each cell would describe the results. A chi-square test for independence would determine whether the proportions of 1st, 2nd , and 3rd place ratings are significantly different from carrier to another. Effect size would be measured with Cramér's V. Alternatively, the data form three sets of scores, one for each phone. The scores are the rankings given by the participants. A Friedman test could evaluate the significance of the difference between carriers. c. The three proportions would describe the relative preference for the carriers. A chi-square test for goodness of fit would determine whether there are significant preferences among the three carriers.

22. Problem 11 in Chapter 15 examined the TV-viewing habits of adopted children in relation to their biological parents and their adoptive parents. The data are reproduced as follows. If both the biological and adoptive parents are used to predict the viewing habits of the children in a multiple-regression equation, what percentage of the variance in the children's scores would be accounted for? That is, compute R2 Adopted Birth Adoptive Birth Parents Parents Y 12 0 1 3 3 4 6 4 2 1 1 0 3 1 0 0 2 3 5 3 2 2 1 3 5 3 3 SSy = 32 SSx1 = 14 SSx2 = 16 SPX I X2 = 8 SPxi y = 15 SPX2 Y = 3 23. For the data in problem 22, the correlation between the children's scores and the biological parents' scores is r = 0.709. Does adding the adoptive parents' scores as a second predictor significantly improve the ability to predict the children's scores? Use a =.05 to evaluate the F-ratio. 24. For the following data, find the multiple-regression equation for predicting Y from X1 and X2. X x2 Y 1 3 1 2 4 2 3 5 6 6 9 8 4 8 3 2 7 4 12 0 1 3 3 4 6 4 2 M = 3 M = 6 M = 4 SSx1 = 16 SSx2 = 28 SSy = 34 SPx1x2 = 18 SPx1y = 19 SPx2y = 21 25. A researcher evaluates the significance of a multipleregression equation and obtains an F-ratio with df = 2, 36. How many participants were in the sample? (Ch 16, multiple regression 2)

22. For the multiple regression equation, b1 = 1.35 and b2 = -0.488. R2 = [1.35(15) - 0.488(3)]/32 = 18.786/32 = 0.587 or 58.7%. 23. Using the biological parents as a single predictor accounts for r2 = 0.503 or 50.3% of the variance. The multiple regression equation accounts for R2 = 58.7% (see problem 22). The extra variance predicted by adding the adoptive parents as a second predictor is 58.7 - 50.3 = 8.4% and has df = 1. The residual from the multiple regression is 1 - R2 = 41.3% and has df = 6. The F-ratio is 8.4/(41.3/6) = 1.22. With df = 1, 6 the F-ratio is not significant. 24. Ŷ = 1.242X1 - 0.048X2 + 0.565 25. n = 39

22. A recent study indicates that people tend to select video game avatars with characteristics similar to those of their creators (Belisle & Onur, 2010). Participants who had created avatars for a virtual community game completed a questionnaire about their personalities. An independent group of viewers examined the avatars and recorded their impressions of the avatars. One personality characteristic considered was introverted/extroverted. The following frequency distribution of personalities for participants and the avatars they created. Participant Personality Introverted Extroverted Intr Avatar 22 23 45 Extro Avatar 16 39 55 38 62 a. Is there a significant relationship between the personalities of the participants and the personalities of their avatars? Test with a = .05. b. Compute the phi-coefficient to measure the size of the effect. (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test) 23. Research indicates that people who volunteer to participate in research studies tend to have higher intelligence than nonvolunteers. To test this phenomenon, a researcher obtains a sample of 200 high school students. The students are given a description of a psychological research study and asked whether they would volunteer to participate. The researcher also obtains an IQ score for each student and classifies the students into high, medium, and low IQ groups. Do the following data indicate a significant relationship between IQ and volunteering? Test at the .05 level of significance. IQ High Medium Low Vol 43 73 34 150 non Vol 7 27 16 50 50 100 50 (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test) 24. Cialdini, Reno, and Kallgren (1990) examined how people conform to norms concerning littering. The researchers wanted to determine whether a person's tendency to litter depended on the amount of litter already in the area. People were handed a handbill as they entered an amusement park. The entrance area had already been prepared with either no litter, a small amount of litter, or a lot of litter lying on the ground. The people were observed to determine whether they dropped their handbills. The frequency data are as follows: Amount of Litter Small Large None Amount Amount Littering 17 28 49 not litter 73 62 41 a. Do the data indicate that people's tendency to litter depends on the amount of litter already on the ground? That is, is there a significant relationship between littering and the amount of existing litter? Test at the .05 level of significance. b. Compute Cramer's V to measure the size of the treatment effect. (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test)

22. a. The null hypothesis states that there is no relationship between the personalities of the participants and the personalities of the avatars they create. With df = 1 and α = .05, the critical value is 3.84. The expected frequencies are: Participant Personality Introv Extrov Introvert Av 17.1 27.9 45 Extrovert Av 20.9 34.1 55 38 62 The chi-square statistic is 4.12. Reject H0. b. The phi-coefficient is 0.203. 23. a. The null hypothesis states that there is no relationship between IQ and volunteering. With df = 2 and α = .05, the critical value is 5.99. The expected frequencies are: IQ High Medium Low vol 37.5 75 37.5 not vol 12.5 25 12.5 The chi-square statistic is 4.75. Fail to reject H0 with α = .05 and df = 2. 24. a. The null hypothesis states that littering is independent of the amount of litter already on the ground. With df = 2, the critical value is 5.99. The expected frequencies are: Amount of Litter None Small Large Litter 31.33 31.33 31.33 Not litter 58.67 58.67 58.67 Chi-square = 25.88. Reject H0. b. V = 0.310 (a medium effect)

22. Problem 22 in Chapter 10 presented data showing that mature soccer players, who have a history of hitting soccer balls with their heads, had significantly lower cognitive scores than mature swimmers, who do not suffer repeated blows to the head. The independent-measures t test produced t = 2.11 with df = 11 and a value of r2 = 0.288 (28.8%). a. Convert the data from this problem into a form suitable for the point-biserial correlation (use 1 for the swimmers and 0 for the soccer players), and then compute the correlation. b. Square the value of the point-biserial correlation to verify that you obtain the same r2 value that was computed in Chapter 10. (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression)

22. a. r = 0.538 b. r2 = 0.289. Within rounding error this is the same as the r2 obtained with the t test in Chapter 10.

23. Problem 14 in Chapter 10 described a study by Rozin, Bauer, and Cantanese (2003) comparing attitudes toward eating for male and female college students. The results showed that females are much more concerned about weight gain and other negative aspects of eating than are males. The following data represent the results from one measure of concern about weight gain. Males Females 22 54 44 57 39 32 27 53 35 49 19 41 35 36 48 Convert the data into a form suitable for the point biserial correlation and compute the correlation. (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression) 24. Studies have shown that people with high intelligence are generally more likely to volunteer as participants in research, but not for research that involves unusual experiences such as hypnosis. To examine this phenomenon, a researcher administers a questionnaire to a sample of college students. The survey asks for the student's grade point average (as a measure of intelligence) and whether the student would like to take part in a future study in which participants would be hypnotized. The results showed that 7 of the 10 lower-intelligence people were willing to participant but only 2 of the 10 higher-intelligence people were willing. a. Convert the data to a form suitable for computing the phi-coefficient. (Code the two intelligence categories as 0 and I for the X variable, and code the willingness to participate as 0 and I for the Y variable.) b. Compute the phi-coefficient for the data. (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression)

23. Using the eating concern scores as the X variable and coding males as 1 and females as 0 for the Y variable produces SSX = 1875.6, SSY = 3.6, and SP = -50.4. The point-biserial correlation is r = -0.613. (Reversing the codes for males and females will change the sign of the correlation.) 24. The converted data show eight people with scores of 0, 0; two people with scores of 0, 1; three people with scores of 1, 0; and seven people with scores of 1, 1. (Note: Any two different numbers can be used for the X and Y values.) The correlation is 0.503.

25. Although the phenomenon is not well understood, it appears that people born during the winter months are slightly more likely to develop schizophrenia than people born at other times (Bradbury & Miller, 1985). The following hypothetical data represent a sample of 50 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and a sample of 100 people with no psychotic diagnosis. Each individual is also classified according to season in which he or she was born. Do the data indicate a significant relationship between schizophrenia and the season of birth? Test at the .05 level of significance. Season of Birth Summer Fall Winter Spring No dis 26 24 22 28 Schizo 9 11 18 12 35 35 40 40 (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test)

25. The null hypothesis states that there is no relationship between the season of birth and schizophrenia. With df = 3 and = .05, the critical value is 7.81. The expected frequencies are: Sum Fall Wint Spri No Dis 23.33 23.33 26.67 26.67 Schiz 11.67 11.67 13.33 13.33 Chi square = 3.62. Fail to reject H0 and conclude that these data do not provide enough evidence to conclude that there is a significant relationship between the season of birth and schizophrenia.

26. There is some research indicating that college students who use Facebook while studying tend to have lower grades than non-users (Kirschner & Karpinski, 2010). A representative study surveys students to determine the amount of Facebook use during the time they are studying or doing homework. Based on the amount of time spent on Facebook, students are classified into three groups (high, medium, and low time) and their grade point averages are recorded. The researcher would like to examine the relationship between grades and amount of time on Facebook. 27. To examine the effect of sleep deprivation on motorskills performance, a sample of n = 10 participants was tested on a motor-skills task after 24 hours of sleep deprivation, tested again after 36 hours, and tested once more after 48 hours. The dependent variable is the number of errors made on the motor-skills task. 28. Ryan and Hemmes (2005) examined how homework assignments are related to learning. The participants were college students enrolled in a class with weekly homework assignments and quizzes. For some weeks, the homework was required and counted toward the student's grade. Other weeks, the homework was optional and did not count toward the student's grade. Predictably, most students completed the required homework assignments and did not do the optional assignments. For each student, the researchers recorded the average quiz grade for weeks with required homework and the average grade for weeks with optional homework to determine whether the grades were significantly higher when homework was required and actually done. 29. Ford and Torok (2008) found that motivational signs were effective in increasing physical activity on a college campus. In a similar study, researchers first counted the number of students and faculty who used the stairs and the number who used the elevators in a college building during a 30-minute observation period. The following week, signs such as "Step up to a healthier lifestyle" and "An average person burns 10 calories a minute walking up the stairs" were posted by the elevators and stairs and the researchers once again counted people to determine whether the signs had a significant effect on behavior. 0 aulia Improve your statistical skills with ample practice exercises and detailed explanations on every question. Purchase www.aplia.

26. The mean and standard deviation could be used to describe the set of grade point averages for each group. An independent-measures ANOVA would evaluate the significance of the mean differences and effect size would be measured by n^2. If the grade point averages were rank ordered, a Spearman correlation could be used to evaluate the relationship. Comparing the sample correlation with the critical values in Table B7 would determine the significance of the correlation. 27. The mean and standard deviation could be used to describe the three deprivation conditions. A repeated-measures ANOVA would evaluate the significance of the mean differences and effect size would be measured by 2. 28. The mean and standard deviation could be used to describe the set of scores in each condition. Or a difference score could be computed for each participant and the results could be described with the mean and standard deviation for the set of difference scores. A repeated-measures t test would evaluate the significance of the mean difference and effect size would be measured by Cohen's d or r2. 29. The data would form a 2x2 frequency distribution matrix and the proportion in each cell would describe the results. A chi-square test for independence would determine whether the proportions using the stairs and elevators are significantly different from condition to the other. Effect size would be measured with a phi-coefficient.

b. Operant conditioning relies on an animal's voluntary behavior

3. Operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning in that: a. Operant conditioning does not work in insects b. Operant conditioning relies on an animal's voluntary behavior c. Classical conditioning involves linking a stimulus with a response d. Classical conditioning is only effective if rewarding (positive) stimuli are used e. Operant conditioning requires a response of the autonomic nervous system

4. Calculate SP (the sum of products of deviations) for the following scores. Note: Both means are decimal values, so the computational formula works well. X Y 1 7 4 2 X Y 1 3 0 2 0 1 1 0 2 1 1 2 0 3 (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression) 5. For the following scores, X Y 76 9 6 6 3 12 5 9 6 5 4 a. Sketch a scatter plot showing the six data points. b. Just looking at the scatter plot, estimate the value of the Pearson correlation. c. Compute the Pearson correlation. (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression) 6. For the following scores, X Y 1 3 3 5 2 1 2 3 a. Sketch a scatter plot and estimate the Pearson correlation. b. Compute the Pearson correlation. (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression) 7. For the following scores, 4. Calculate SP (the sum of products of deviations) for the following scores. Note: Both means are decimal values, so the computational formula works well. X Y 1 7 4 2 1 3 1 6 2 0 0 6 2 3 1 5 a. Sketch a scatter plot and estimate the Pearson correlation. b. Compute the Pearson correlation. (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression)

4. SP = -2 5. a. The scatter plot shows points widely scattered around a line sloping up to the right. b. The correlation is small but positive; around 0.4 to 0.6. c. For these scores, SSX = 32, SSY = 8, and SP = 8. The correlation is r = 8/16 = 0.50. 6. a. The scatter plot shows points widely scattered around a line sloping up to the right. b. For these scores, SSX = 2, SSY = 8, and SP = 2. The correlation is r = 2/4 = 0.50. 7. a.. The scatter plot shows points moderately scattered around a line sloping down to the right. b. SSX = 10, SSY = 40, and SP = -13. The correlation is r = -13/20 = -0.65.

4. To examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and birth weight, a researcher selects a sample of n = 20 pregnant rats and mixes alcohol with their food for 2 weeks before the pups are born. One newborn pup is randomly selected from each subject's litter and the average birth weight for the n = 20 pups is recorded. It is known that the average birth weight for regular rats (without exposure to alcohol) is p. = 5.6 grams. (PSY202 Ch 19) 5. To examine the relationship between texting and driving skill, a researcher uses orange cones to set up a driving circuit in the high school parking lot. A group of students is then tested on the circuit, once while receiving and sending text messages and once without texting. For each student, the researcher records the number of orange cones hit while driving each circuit. (PSY202 Ch 19) 6. Childhood participation in sports, cultural groups, and youth groups appears to be related to improved self-esteem for adolescents (McGee, Williams, Howden-Chapman, Martin, & Kawachi, 2006). In a representative study, a researcher compares scores on a standardized self-esteem questionnaire for a sample of n = 100 adolescents with a history of group participation and a separate sample of n = 100 who have no history of group participation. (PSY202 Ch 19) 7. There is some evidence indicating that people with visible tattoos are viewed more negatively than people without visible tattoos (Resenhoeft, Villa, & Wiseman, 2008). In a similar study, a researcher showed male college students photographs of women and asked the students to rate the attractiveness of each woman using a 7-point scale. One of the women was selected as the target. For one group of participants, the target was photographed with a large tattoo on her shoulder and for a second group her photograph showed no tattoo. The researcher plans to compare the target's ratings for the two groups to determine whether the tattoo had any effect on perceived attractiveness. (PSY202 Ch 19) 8. A researcher investigated different combinations of temperature and humidity to examine how heat affects performance. The researcher compared three temperature conditions (70°, 80°, and 90°) with a high humidity and a low humidity condition for each temperature. A separate group of participants was tested in each of the six different conditions. For each participant, the researcher recorded the number of errors on a problem-solving task. The researcher would like to know how different combinations of temperature and humidity influence performance. (PSY202 Ch 19)

4. The mean and standard deviation could be used to describe the set of scores. A single-sample t test would determine whether the alcohol had a significant effect. Effect size would be measured by Cohen's d or r2. 5. The mean and standard deviation could be used to describe the set of scores with texting and the set of scores without texting. Or a difference score could be computed for each participant and the results could be described with the mean and standard deviation for the set of difference scores. A repeated-measures t test would evaluate the significance of the mean difference and effect size would be measured by Cohen's d or r2. 6. The mean and standard deviation could be used to describe the set of scores for each group. An independent-measures t test would evaluate the significance of the mean difference and effect size would be measured by Cohen's d or r2. 7. The mean and standard deviation could be used to describe the set of scores for each condition. An independent-measures t test would evaluate the significance of the mean difference and effect size would be measured by Cohen's d or r2. 8. The mean and standard deviation could be used to describe the set of scores for each of the six treatment conditions. A two-factor ANOVA would evaluate the significance of the mean differences for the main effect of temperature, the main effect of humidity, and the interaction. Effect size would be measured by computing an n^2 value for each main effect and for the interaction.

5. The following matrix presents the results from an independent-measures, two-factor study with a sample of n = 10 participants in each treatment condition. Note that one treatment mean is missing. B1 B2 A1 M=20 M=30 A2 M=40 a. What value for the missing mean would result in no main effect for factor A? b. What value for the missing mean would result in no main effect for factor B? c. What value for the missing mean would result in no interaction? 6. The following matrix presents the results of a two- factor study with n = 10 scores in each of the six treatment conditions. Note that one of the treatment means is missing. B1 B2 B3 A1 M= 10 M = 20 M = 40 A1 M = 20 M = 30 a. What value for the missing mean would result in no main effect for factor A? b. What value for the missing mean would result in no interaction? (Stats Ch 14 - 2 factor ANOVA)

5. a. M = 10 b. M = 30 c. M = 50 6. a. M = 20 b. M = 50

6. In general, how is the magnitude of the standard error of estimate related to the value of the correlation? 7. For the following set of data, find the linear regression equation for predicting Y from X: X Y 7 6 9 6 6 3 12 5 9 6 5 4 (Ch 16, multiple regression 2)

6. The closer the correlation is to 1.00 (or -1.00), the smaller the standard error of estimate. 7. SSX = 32, SSY = 8, SP = 8. The regression equation is Ŷ = 0.25X + 3

6. A published report of a repeated-measures research study includes the following description of the statistical analysis. "The results show significant differences among the treatment conditions, F(2, 20) = 6.10, p <.01." a. How many treatment conditions were compared in the study? b. How many individuals participated in the study? 7. The following data were obtained from a repeated measures study comparing three treatment conditions. Use a repeated-measures ANOVA with a =.05 to determine whether there are significant mean differences among the three treatments. P I II III Totals A 0 4 2 P = 6 B 1 5 6 P= 12 N = 18 C 3 3 3 P = 9 G = 48 D 0 1 5 P= 6 EX^2 = 184 E 0 2 4 P= 6 F 2 3 4 P= 9 M= 1 M = 3 M= 4 T = 6 T= 18 T = 24 SS = 8 SS = 10 SS = 10 8. The following data were obtained from a repeatedmeasures study comparing two treatment conditions. Use a repeated-measures ANOVA with a = .05 to determine whether there are significant mean differences between the two treatments. Person Treatments Person I II Totals A 3 5 P = 8 B 5 9 P = 14 N = 16 C 1 5 P= 6 G = 80 D 1 7 P= 8 EX^2 = 500 E 5 9 P = 14 F 3 7 P = 10 G 2 6 P = 8 H 4 8 P = 12 M = 3 M= 7 T = 24 T = 56 SS = 18 SS = 18 9. The following data were obtained from a repeated measures study comparing three treatment conditions. a. Use a repeated-measures ANOVA with a = .05 to determine whether there are significant mean differences among the three treatments. b. Compute n^2, the percentage of variance accounted for by the mean differences, to measure the size of the treatment effects. c. Write a sentence demonstrating how a research report would present the results of the hypothesis test and the measure of effect size. P I II III Totals A 1 1 4 P = 6 B 3 4 8 P = 15 N = 15 C 0 2 7 P = 9 G = 45 D 0 0 6 P= 6 EX^2 = 231 E 1 3 5 P = 9 M= 1 M = 2 M = 6 T = 5 T = 10 T = 30 SS = 6 SS = 10 SS = 10 (Psy202, stats, Ch 13)

6. a. 3 treatments b. 11 participants 7. Source SS df MS F(2, 10) = 7.78 Between Treatments 28 2 14 Within Treatments 28 15 Between Subjects 10 5 Error 18 10 1.8 Total 56 17 With df = 2, 10, the critical value is 4.10. Reject H0. There are significant differences among the three treatments. 8. Source SS df MS F(1, 7) = 112.28 Between Treatments 64 1 64 Within Treatments 36 14 Between Subjects 32 7 Error 4 7 0.57 Total 100 15 With df = 1, 7, the critical value is 5.59. Reject H0. There is a significant difference between the two treatments. 9. a. The null hypothesis states that there are no differences among the three treatments. With df = 2, 8, the critical value is 4.46. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 70 2 35 F(2, 8) = 35 Within Treatments 26 12 Between Subjects 18 4 Error 8 8 1 Total 96 14 Reject H0. There are significant differences among the three treatments. b. For these data, η2 = 70/78 = 0.897. c. The analysis of variance shows significant mean differences among the three treatments, F(2, 8) = 35.00, p < .05, η2 = 0.897.

7. Suppose that the researcher from the previous problem repeated the study of married couples' initials using twice as many participants and obtaining observed frequencies that exactly double the original values. The resulting data are as follows: Same Different Initial Initials 38 362 400 a. Use a chi-square test to determine whether the number of couples with the same last initial is significantly different than would be expected if couples were matched randomly. Test with a = .05. b. You should find that the data lead to rejecting the null hypothesis. However, in problem 6 the decision was fail to reject. How do you explain the fact that the two samples have the same proportions but lead to different conclusions? (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test) 8. A professor in the psychology department would like to determine whether there has been a significant change in grading practices over the years. It is known that the overall grade distribution for the department in 1985 had 14% As, 26% Bs, 31% Cs, 19% Ds, and 10% Fs. A sample of n = 200 psychology students from last semester produced the following grade distribution: A B C D F 32 61 64 31 12 Do the data indicate a significant change in the grade distribution? Test at the .05 level of significance. (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test) 9. Automobile insurance is much more expensive for teenage drivers than for older drivers. To justify this cost difference, insurance companies claim that the younger drivers are much more likely to be involved in costly accidents. To test this claim, a researcher obtains information about registered drivers from the department of motor vehicles (DMV) and selects a sample of n = 300 accident reports from the police department. The DMV reports the percentage of registered drivers in each age category as follows: 16% are younger than age 20; 28% are 20 to 29 years old; and 56% are age 30 or older. The number of accident reports for each age group is as follows: Under Age Age 30 age 20 20-29 or older 68 92 140 a. Do the data indicate that the distribution of accidents for the three age groups is significantly different from the distribution of drivers? Test with a = .05. b. Write a sentence demonstrating how the outcome of the hypothesis test would appear in a research report (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test) 10. The color red is often associated with anger and male dominance. Based on this observation, Hill and Barton (2005) monitored the outcome of four combat sports (boxing, tae kwan do, Greco-Roman wrestling, and freestyle wrestling) during the 2004 Olympic games and found that participants wearing red outfits won significantly more often than those wearing blue. a. In 50 wrestling matches involving red versus blue, suppose that the red outfit won 31 times and lost 19 times. Is this result sufficient to conclude that red wins significantly more than would be expected by chance? Test at the .05 level of significance. b. In 100 matches, suppose red won 62 times and lost 38. Is this sufficient to conclude that red wins significantly more than would be expected by chance? Again, use a = .05. c. Note that the winning percentage for red uniforms in part a is identical to the percentage in part b (31 out of 50 is 62%, and 62 out of 100 is also 62%). Although the two samples have an identical winning percentage, one is significant and the other is not. Explain why the two samples lead to different conclusions. (PSY202 Ch 17 Chi Test)

7. a. The null hypothesis states that couples with the same initial do not occur more often than would be expected by chance. For a sample of 400, the expected frequencies are 26 with the same initial and 374 with different initials. With df = 1 the critical value is 3.84, and the data produce a chi-square of 5.92. Reject the null hypothesis. b. A larger sample should be more representative of the population. If the sample continues to be different from the hypothesis as the sample size increases, eventually the difference will be significant. 8. The null hypothesis states that the grade distribution for last semester has the same proportions as it did in 1985. For a sample of n = 200, the expected frequencies are 28, 52, 62, 38, and 20 for grades of A, B, C, D, and F, respectively. With df = 4, the critical value for chi-square is 9.49. For these data, the chi-square statistic is 6.68. Fail to reject H0 and conclude that there is no evidence that the distribution has changed. 9. a. H0 states that the distribution of automobile accidents is the same as the distribution of registered drivers: 16% under age 20, 28% age 20 to 29, and 56% age 30 or older. With df = 2, the critical value is 5.99. The expected frequencies for these three categories are 48, 84, and 168. Chi square = 13.76. Reject H0 and conclude that the distribution of automobile accidents is not identical to the distribution of registered drivers. b. The chi-square test shows that the age distribution for people in automobile accidents is significantly different from the age distribution of licensed drivers, χ2(3, N= 180) = 13.76, p < .05. 10. a. The null hypothesis states that there is no advantage (no preference) for red or blue. With df = 1, the critical value is 3.84. The expected frequency is 25 wins for each color, and chi-square = 2.88. Fail to reject H0 and conclude that there is no significant advantage for one color over the other. b. The null hypothesis states that there is no advantage (no preference) for red or blue. With df = 1, the critical value is 3.84. The expected frequency is 50 wins for each color, and chi-square = 5.76. Reject H0 and conclude that there is a significant advantage for the color red. c. Although the proportions are identical for the two samples, the sample in part b is twice as big as the sample in part a. The larger sample provides more convincing evidence of an advantage for red than does the smaller sample.

7. The point-biserial correlation is used to measure the strength of the relationship when ___a____. The dichotomous variable is coded using values of 0 and 1, and the regular Pearson formula is applied. Squaring the point biserial correlation produces the same r2 value that is obtained to measure ___b___for the independentmeasures t test. When both variables, X and Y, are dichotomous, the phi-coefficient can be used to measure the strength of the relationship. Both variables are coded 0 and 1, and the Pearson formula is used to compute the correlation. (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression) _______________________ 1. What information is provided by the sign (+ or —) of the Pearson correlation? 2. What information is provided by the numerical value of the Pearson correlation? 3. Calculate SP (the sum of products of deviations) for the following scores. Note: Both means are whole numbers, so the definitional formula works well X y 0 2 1 4 4 5 3 3 7 6 (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression)

7. a. one of the two variables is dichotomous b. effect size _________________ 1. A positive correlation indicates that X and Y change in the same direction: As X increases, Y also increases. A negative correlation indicates that X and Y tend to change in opposite directions: As X increases, Y decreases. 2. The numerical value of the Pearson correlation indicates how well the data points fit a straight line. A value of 1.00 (or -1.00) indicates a perfect linear fit and a value of zero indicates no linear trend. 3. SP = 15

e. Connectionist theory

8. The idea that memories of objects are stored in the brain as separate details that might be shared with other similar objects is known as: a. Nativism b. Revisionism c. Multi-culturalism d. Collectivism e. Connectionist theory

7. For the data in the following graph: a. Is there a main effect for the treatment factor? b. Is there a main effect for the age factor? c. Is there an interaction between age and treatment? (To see image of graph look into answers) 8. A researcher conducts an independent-measures, two-factor study using a separate sample of n = 15 participants in each treatment condition. The results are evaluated using an ANOVA and the researcher reports an F-ratio with df = 1, 84 for factor A, and an F-ratio with df = 2, 84 for factor B. a. How many levels of factor A were used in the study? b. How many levels of factor B were used in the study? c. What are the df values for the F-ratio evaluating the interaction? 9. The following results are from an independent-measures, two-factor study with n = 10 participants in each treatment condition. B1 B2 A1 T=40 T=10 M=4 M=1 SS=50 SS=30 A2 T=50 T=20 M=4 M=2 SS=50 SS=40 N=40 G=120 EX^2=640 a. Use a two-factor ANOVA with a = .05 to evaluate the main effects and the interaction. b. Compute n^2 to measure the effect size for each of the main effects and the interaction. (Stats Ch 14 - 2 factor ANOVA)

8. a. 2 b. 3 c. 2, 84 9. a. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 100 3 A 10 1 10 F(1,36) = 2 B 90 1 90 F(1,36)= 18.00 A x B 0 1 0 F(1,36) = 0 Within Treatments 180 36 5 Total 280 39 All F-ratios have df = 1, 36 and the critical value is F = 4.11. The main effect for factor B is significant, but factor A and the interaction are not. b. For factor A, η2 = 10/190 = 0.053, for factor B, η2 = 90/270 = 0.333, and for the interaction, η2 = 0.

8. For the following data: a. Find the regression equation for predicting Y from X. b. Calculate the Pearson correlation for these data. Use r2 and SSy to compute SSresidual and the standard error of estimate for the equation. X Y 1 2 4 7 3 5 2 1 5 14 3 7 9. Does the regression equation from problem 8 account for a significant portion of the variance in the Y scores? Use a = .05 to evaluate the F-ratio. 10. For the following scores, x Y 3 6 6 1 3 4 3 3 5 1 a. Find the regression equation for predicting Y from X. b. Calculate the predicted Y value for each X. (Ch 16, multiple regression 2)

8. a. The regression equation is Ŷ = 3X - 3 b. SSX = 10, SSY = 108, SP = 30, r = +0.913. Using the correlation, SSresidual = (1 - r2)SSY = (0.166)(108) = 17.93 and the standard error of estimate is 2.12. 9. SSregression = r2SSY = 90.02 with df = 1. MSresidual = 18/4 = 4.5. F = 90.02/4.5 = 20.00. With df = 1, 4, the F-ratio is significant with α = .05. 10. a. SSX = 8, SP = 10 Ŷ = 1.25X - 2 b. X Ŷ 3 1.75 6 5.50 3 1.75 3 1.75 5 4.25

8. For the following scores, X Y 1 6 4 1 1 4 1 3 3 1 a. Sketch a scatter plot and estimate the value of the Pearson correlation. b. Compute the Pearson correlation. (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression) 9. With a small sample, a single point can have a large effect on the magnitude of the correlation. To create the following data, we started with the scores from problem 8 and changed the first X value from X = 1 to X = 6. X Y 6 6 4 I 1 4 1 3 3 1 a. Sketch a scatter plot and estimate the value of the Pearson correlation. b. Compute the Pearson correlation. (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression) 10. For the following set of scores, X Y 6 4 3 1 5 0 6 7 4 2 6 4 a. Compute the Pearson correlation. b. Add 2 points to each X value and compute the correlation for the modified scores. How does adding a constant to every score affect the value of the correlation? c. Multiply each of the original X values by 2 and compute the correlation for the modified scores. How does multiplying each score by a constant affect the value of the correlation? (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression) 11. Correlation studies are often used to help determine whether certain characteristics are controlled more by genetic influences or by environmental influences. These studies often examine adopted children and compare their behaviors with the behaviors of their birth parents and their adoptive parents. One study examined how much time individuals spend watching TV (Plomin, Corley, DeFries, & Fulker, 1990). The following data are similar to the results obtained in the study. Amount of Time Spent Watching TV Adopted Birth Adoptive Children Parents Parents 2 0 1 3 3 4 6 4 2 1 1 0 3 1 0 0 2 3 5 3 2 2 1 3 5 3 3 a. Compute the correlation between the children and their birth parents. b. Compute the correlation between the children and their adoptive parents. c. Based on the two correlations, does TV watching appear to be inherited from the birth parents or is it learned from the adoptive parents? (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression)

8. a.. The scatter plot shows points widely scattered around a line sloping up to the right. b. SSX = 8, SSY = 18, and SP = -10. The correlation is r = -10/12 = -0.83. 9. a.. The scatter plot shows points clustered around a line sloping up to the right. b. SSX = 18, SSY = 18, and SP = 5. The correlation is r = 5/18 = 0.278. 10. a. SSX = 8, SSY = 32, and SP = 11. The correlation is r = 11/16 = 0.688. b. After adding 2 points to each score, the correlation is still r = 11/16 = 0.688. Adding a constant to each score does not change the value of the correlation. b. After multiplying each score by 2, the correlation is still r = 11/16 = 0.688. Multiplying by a constant to does not change the value of the correlation. 11. a. For the children, SS = 32 and for the birth parents, SS = 14. SP = 15. The correlation is r = 0.709. b. For the children, SS = 32 and for the adoptive parents SS = 16. SP = 3. The correlation is r = 0.133. c. The children's behavior is strongly related to their birth parents and only weakly related to their adoptive parents. The data suggest that the behavior is inherited rather than learned.

a. The sound and the light both are conditioned to produce responses

9. In classical conditioning, when a sound and a light are activated simultaneously prior to a foot shock that produces fear responses: a. The sound and the light both are conditioned to produce responses b. The sound blocks the acquisition of conditioning to the light c. Neither stimulus is conditioned d. The light blocks the acquisition of conditioning to the sound e. The combination produces longer retention of conditioning to both the light and the sound

9. Hallam, Price, and Katsarou (2002) investigated the influence of background noise on classroom performance for children aged 10 to 12. In a similar study, students in one classroom worked on an arithmetic task with calming music in the background. Students in a second classroom heard aggressive, exciting music, and students in a third room had no music at all. The researchers measured the number of problems answered correctly for each student to determine whether the music conditions had any effect on performance. (PSY202 Ch 19) 10. A researcher is investigating the relationship between personality and birth order position. A sample of college students is classified into four birth-order categories (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th or later) and classified as being either extroverted or introverted. (PSY202 Ch 19) 11. A researcher is investigating the relationship between personality and birth order position. A sample of college students is classified into four birth-order categories (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th or later) and given a personality test that measures the degree of extroversion on a 50-point scale. (PSY202 Ch 19) 12. A survey of female high school seniors includes one question asking for the amount of time spent on clothes, hair, and makeup each morning before school. The researcher plans to use the results as part of a general description of today's high school students.

9. The mean and standard deviation could be used to describe the set of scores for each condition. An independent-measures ANOVA would evaluate the significance of the mean differences and effect size would be measured by n^2. 10. The data would form a 2x4 frequency distribution matrix and the proportion in each cell would describe the results. A chi-square test for independence would determine whether the proportions are significantly different from one birth order group to another. Effect size would be measured with Cramér's V. Alternatively, the data form two sets of scores, one for each personality group, with the score for each participant being the ordinal birth order category (1, 2, 3, 4). A Mann-Whitney test could evaluate the significance of the difference between groups. 11. The mean and standard deviation could be used to describe the set of scores for each of the four birth order groups. An independent-measures ANOVA would evaluate the significance of the mean differences and effect size would be measured by n^2. 12. The mean (or median) time and the standard deviation could be used to describe the group.

9. The following data summarize the results from an independent-measures study comparing three treatment conditions. I II III n= 5 n= 5 n= 5 M = 2 M= 5 M= 8 N= 15 T= 10 T = 25 T = 40 G = 75 SS = 16 SS = 20 SS = 24 EX^2 = 525 a. Calculate the sample variance for each of the three samples. b. Use an ANOVA with a = .05 to determine whether there are any significant differences among the three treatment means. (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) 10. For the preceding problem you should find that there are significant differences among the three treatments. One reason for the significance is that the sample variances are relatively small. To create the following data, we started with the values from problem 9 and increased the variability (the SS values) within each sample. I II III n= 5 n= 5 n= 5 M= 2 M = 5 M = 8 N = 15 T= 10 T = 25 T = 40 G = 75 SS = 64 SS = 80 SS = 96 EX2 = 705 a. Calculate the sample variance for each of the three samples. Describe how these sample variances compare with those from problem 9. b. Predict how the increase in sample variance should influence the outcome of the analysis. That is, how will the F-ratio for these data compare with the value obtained in problem 9? c. Use an ANOVA with a = .05 to determine whether there are any significant differences among the three treatment means. (Does your answer agree with your prediction in part b?) (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) 11. Binge drinking on college campuses has been a hot topic in the popular media and in scholarly research. Flett, Goldstein, Wall, Hewitt, Wekerle, and Azzi (2008) report the results of a study relating perfectionism to binge drinking. In the study, students were classified into three groups based on the number of binge drinking episodes they experienced during the past month (0, 1, 2 or more). The students then completed a perfectionism questionnaire including one scale measuring parental criticism. One sample item is "I never felt that I could meet my parents' standards." Students rated their levelof agreement with each item, and the total score was calculated for each student. The following results are similar to those obtained by the researchers. Binge Drinking Episodes in Past Month 0 1 2 or more 8 10 13 N = 15 8 12 14 10 8 12 G = 165 9 9 15 10 11 16 Ex^2 = 1909 M = 9 M = 10 M = 14 T = 45 T = 50 T = 70 SS = 4 SS = 10 SS = 10 a. Use an ANOVA with a = .05 to determine whether there are any significant differences among the three treatment means. b. Calculate ,O2 to measure the effect size for this study. c. Write a sentence demonstrating how a research report would present the results of the hypothesis test and the measure of effect size. (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) 12. A researcher reports an F-ratio with df = 3, 36 from an independent-measures research study. a. How many treatment conditions were compared in the study? b. What was the total number of participants in the study? (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) 13. A research report from an independent-measures study states that there are significant differences between treatments, F(2, 54) = 3.58, p < .05. a. How many treatment conditions were compared in the study? b. What was the total number of participants in the study? (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) 14. There is some evidence that high school students justify cheating in class on the basis of poor teacher skills or low levels of teacher caring (Murdock, Miller, and Kohlhardt, 2004). Students appear to rationalize their illicit behavior based on perceptions of how their teachers view cheating. Poor teachers are thought not to know or care whether students cheat, so cheating in their classes is okay. Good teachers, on the other hand, do care and are alert to cheating, so students tend not to cheat in their classes. Following are hypothetical data similar to the actual research results. The scores represent judgments of the acceptability of cheating for the students in each sample. Poor Average Good Teacher Teacher Teacher n= 6 n= 8 n = 10 N = 24 M = 6 M = 2 M = 2 G = 72 SS = 30 SS = 33 SS = 42 Ex^2 = 393 a. Use an ANOVA with a = .05 to determine whether there are significant differences in student judgments depending on how they see their teachers. b. Calculate n^2 to measure the effect size for this study. c. Write a sentence demonstrating how a research report would present the results of the hypothesis test and the measure of effect size. (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests)

9. a. The sample variances are 4, 5, and 6. b. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 90 2 45 F(2, 12) = 9.00 Within Treatments 60 12 5 Total 150 14 With α = .05, the critical value is F = 3.88. Reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there are significant differences among the three treatments. 10. a. The sample variances are 16, 20, and 24. These values are much larger than the variances in problem 9. b. The larger variances should result in a smaller F-ratio that is less likely to reject the null hypothesis. c. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 90 2 45 F(2, 12) = 2.25 Within Treatments 240 12 20 Total 330 14 With α = .05, the critical value is F = 3.88. Fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there are no significant differences among the three treatments. The F-ratio is much smaller as predicted. 11. a. Source SS df MS Between Treatments 70 2 35 F(2, 12) = 17.50 Within Treatments 24 12 2 Total 94 14 With α = .05, the critical value is F = 3.68. Reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there are significant differences among the three treatments. b. η2 = 70/94 = 0.745. c. Analysis of variance showed significant mean differences in perfectionism related to parental criticism among the three groups of students, F(2, 15) = 6.00, p < .05, η2 = 0.745. 2. a. k = 4 treatment conditions. b. The study used a total of N = 40 participants. 13. a. k = 3 treatment conditions. b. The study used a total of N = 57 participants. 14. a. Source SS df MS Between Treatm 72 2 36 F(2, 21) = 7.20 Within Treatments 105 21 5 Total 177 23 With α = .05, the critical value is F = 3.47. Reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there are significant differences among the three types of teachers. b. For these data, η2 = 72/177 = 0.407. c. The results indicate significant differences in the students' acceptability of cheating for the three different types of teacher, F(2, 21) = 7.20, p < .05, η2 = 0.407.

9. With a small sample, a single point can have a large effect on the magnitude of the correlation. To create the following data, we started with the scores from problem 8 and changed the first X value from X = 1 to X = 6. X Y 6 6 4 I 1 4 1 3 3 1 a. Sketch a scatter plot and estimate the value of the Pearson correlation. b. Compute the Pearson correlation. 11. Correlation studies are often used to help determine whether certain characteristics are controlled more by genetic influences or by environmental influences. These studies often examine adopted children and compare their behaviors with the behaviors of their birth parents and their adoptive parents. One study examined how much time individuals spend watching TV (Plomin, Corley, DeFries, & Fulker, 1990). The following data are similar to the results obtained in the study. Amount of Time Spent Watching TV Adopted Birth Adoptive Children Parents Parents 2 0 1 3 3 4 6 4 2 1 1 0 3 1 0 0 2 3 5 3 2 2 1 3 5 3 3 a. Compute the correlation between the children and their birth parents. b. Compute the correlation between the children and their adoptive parents. c. Based on the two correlations, does TV watching appear to be inherited from the birth parents or is it learned from the adoptive parents? 12. Judge and Cable (2010) report the results of a study demonstrating a negative relationship between weight and income for a group of women professionals. Following are data similar to those obtained in the study. To simplify the weight variable, the women are classified into five categories that measure actual weight relative to height, from 1 = thinnest to 5 = heaviest. Income figures are annual income (in thousands), rounded to the nearest $1,000. a. Calculate the Pearson correlation for these data. b. Is the correlation statistically significant? Use a two-tailed test with a = .05. Weight (X) Income (Y) 1 125 2 78 4 49 3 63 5 35 2 84 5 38 3 51 1 93 4 44

9. a.. The scatter plot shows points clustered around a line sloping up to the right. b. SSX = 18, SSY = 18, and SP = 5. The correlation is r = 5/18 = 0.278. 11. a. For the children, SS = 32 and for the birth parents, SS = 14. SP = 15. The correlation is r = 0.709. b. For the children, SS = 32 and for the adoptive parents SS = 16. SP = 3. The correlation is r = 0.133. c. The children's behavior is strongly related to their birth parents and only weakly related to their adoptive parents. The data suggest that the behavior is inherited rather than learned. 12. a. For the weights, SS = 20 and for the incomes, SS = 7430. SP = -359. The correlation is r = -0.931. b. With n = 10, df = 8 and the critical value is 0.632. The correlation is significant.

A. (ANOVA) The alternative states that (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) B. The MSbetween measures differences between the treatments by computing the variability of the treatment means or totals. These differences are assumed to be produced by (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests) C. When_______ the numerator and the denominator of the F-ratio are measuring the same variance, and the obtained ratio should be near 1.00. (Psy202 Ch 12 - AVOVA, Post Hoc Tests)

A. at least one mean is different from another. B.a. Treatment effects (if they exist) b. Random, unsystematic differences (chance) C. o treatment effect (H0 is true),

Sensitive to voltage

Action potential form because the ion channels are ____________

Actor controls the action or response. It has to remember the action that was taken so that it could be modified later. Critics learns to prict the future Separate from that are places where the actual value towards the rewarding value: the closer you get the more rewards there are. These arguably are two very different parts of the mechanism

Actor controls ________________ Critics __________ Separate from that are places where the actual value towards the rewarding value: the closer you get the more rewards there are. These arguably are two very different parts of the mechanism

the tone develops a history of predicting nothing

An Attentional Explanation of Latent Inhibition Mackintosh's model predicts that the salience of a tone as a potential CS will decrease when the tone is presented without any US because ____________

synaptic depression

Aplysia, habituation can be explained as a form of ______________, a reduction in synaptic transmission. The reduction in glutamate release is evident even after a single touch and lasts for up to 10 minutes.

Appetitive Conditioning: appetitive conditioning consists of learning to predict something that satisfies a desire or appetite Aversive Conditioning: learning to avoid or minimize the consequences of an expected aversive event\

Appetitive Conditionin Aversive Conditioning

(a) actual US - expected US = 100 - 0 = 100 (b) Increases in association strength (c) lead to reductions in association strength.

Applying the Rescorla-Wagner Model to Learning a New Association Animal is trained over many trials that a light CS predicts a shock US Expected US = W(light) = 0 Prediction error = __________(a)_________ positive prediction errors lead to ________(b)________ negative prediction errors ________(c)________

Approaches to Science Objectivity: observation of the world can occur in a neutral fashion without being influenced by theory or personal assumptions. Observers are interchangable. Everyone would describe it more or less the same way. Subjectivity: A recognition that the world is influenced by theory or cultural personal assumptions. It actually does matter who is looking. The goal shouldn't be that we remove ourselves. If subjectivity is done it is appropriate. Value Freedom (positivism: you can approach in a value free way) vs commit (critical approach: there is a value judgement)

Approaches to Science Objectivity: Subjectivity: Value Freedom (positivism: you can approach in a value free way) vs commit (critical approach: there is a value judgement)

not all cues are equally likely to be associated with every outcome

Associative Bias and Ecological Constraints

Attributes (characteristics that describe people, cases or things. Man or woman. Variables logical groupings of attributes ie gender

Attributes Variables

a larger region of the somatosensory cortex than was observed before exposure

Before repeated exposures, fMRI difference images showed that touching the right index finger resulted in localized activation within the somatosensory cortex. After this finger was stimulated repeatedly for 2 hours, subsequent instances of stimulation activated _________________ (Figure 3.15c; Hodzic et al., 2004).

react against the wall

Calcium moving through the channels which causes ventricles to _______ and release neurotrasmitters. Neurotrasmitters increases the rate of firing

(1) Independence of mind - commitment and disposition favorable to autonomous thinking i.e thinking for oneself. (2) Intellectual curiosity - the disposition to wonder about the world (3) Intellectual Courage - the willingness to evaluate all ideas, beliefs, or viewpoints fairly, and the courage to take a position. Evaluating opinions fairly does not mean that we can't think that a certain way of being is best. (4) Intellectual humility - an understanding of the limits of one's knowledge (5) intellectual empathy - being conscious of the need to put oneself in the place of others in order to understand them(6) Intellectual perseverance - the willingness to pursue intellectual insights and truths in spite of difficulties, obstacles, and frustration. Though things are difficult there are things that are valuable to continue to work on this until I get it. (7) Reflexive disposition - awareness of one's own approach is fallible. Sometimes our methods can lead to problems. Being conscious of that really gives us insight. The more we are aware of our mistake the more we are able to move beyond that.

Characteristics of a critical thinking

18. Stressful or traumatic experiences can often worsen other health-related problems such as asthma or rheumatoid arthritis. However, if patients are instructed to write about their stressful experiences, it can often lead to improvement in health (Smyth, Stone, Hurewitz, & Kaell, 1999). In a typical study, patients with asthma or arthritis are asked to write about the "most stressful event of your life." In a sample of n = 112 patients, suppose that 64 showed improvement in their symptoms, 12 showed no change, and 36 showed worsening symptoms. a. If the 12 patients showing no change are discarded, are these results sufficient to conclude that the writing had a significant effect? Use a two-tailed test with a = .05. b. If the 12 patients who showed no change are split between the two groups, are the results sufficient to demonstrate a significant change? Use a two-tailed test with a = .05. (PSY202 Ch 18 Binomial)

Check ans

8. In the Preview section for Chapter 17, we discussed a study by Loftus and Palmer (1974) examining how different phrasing of questions can influence eyewitness testimony. In the study, students watched a video of an automobile accident and then were questioned about what they had seen. One group of participants was asked to estimate the speed of the cars when they "smashed into" each other. Another group of was asked to estimate the speed of the cars when they "hit" each other. Suppose that the actual speed of the cars was 22 miles per hour. a. For the 50 people in the "smashed-into" group, assume that 32 overestimated the actual speed, 17 underestimated the speed, and I was exactly right. Is this result significantly different from what would be expected by chance? Use a two-tailed test with a = .05. b. For the 50 people in the "hit" group, assume that 27 overestimated the actual speed, 22 underestimated the speed, 1 was exactly right. Again, use a two-tailed test with a = .05 to determine whether this result significantly different from (PSY202 Ch 18 Binomial) 10. In 2005, Fung et al. published a study reporting that patients prefer technical quality versus interpersonal skills when selecting a primary care physician. Participants were presented with report cards describing pairs of hypothetical physicians and were asked to select the one that they preferred. Suppose that this study is repeated with a sample of n = 150 participants, and the results show that physicians with greater technical skill are preferred by 92 participants and physicians with greater interpersonal skills are selected by 58. Are these results sufficient to conclude that there is a significant preference for technical skill? (PSY202 Ch 18 Binomial) 15. Reed, Vernon, and Johnson (2004) examined the relationship between brain nerve conduction velocity and intelligence in normal adults. Brain nerve conduction velocity was measured three separate ways and nine different measures were used for intelligence. The researchers then correlated each of the three nerve velocity measures with each of the nine intelligence measures for a total of 27 separate correlations. Unfortunately, none of the correlations were significant. a. For the 186 males in the study, however, 25 of the 27 correlations were positive. Is this significantly more than would be expected if positive and negative correlations were equally likely? Use a two-tailed test with a = .05. b. For the 201 females in the study, 20 of the 27 correlations were positive. Is this significantly more than would be expected if positive and negative correlations were equally likely? Use a two-tailed test with a = .05. (PSY202 Ch 18 Binomial)

Check ans

The Rescorla-Wagner model argues that this outcome is due to the stock market (the US) already being well predicted by Doris (the first CS), so that no additional value (no learning) is attached to Herman (a potential second CS). Mackintosh's view of blocking is quite different. He argues that you come to devote all of your attention to Doris because she has a long history of predicting the stock market, and therefore you have no attention left to pay to Herman.

Compare stock market reduncy and how the Rescorla-Wagner model vs Mackintosh's view of blocking

preparatory response compensates for the expected rise in water level and ensures that the pool never gets too full

Conditioned Compensatory Responses

Conditioned taste aversion (Garcia and Koelling, 1966): Rats in the poison group were far more likely to associate the taste stimulus with the poison than to associate the tone with the poison.

Conditioned taste aversion (Garcia and Koelling, 1966): Rats in the poison group ___________ Garcia and his colleagues concluded that taste is a more effective stimulus for learning to predict illness but that an audio cue is more effective for learning to predict a shock.

1. ID problem 2. Review existing literature 3. Formulate research question 4. Operationalize (figure out what's going to count) 5. Select research methods 6. Collect data/sampling 7. Findings 8. Analyze data/discussion 9. Disucssion 10. Develop the conclusion

Conducting Researh

focuses on large macro-level structures (class relations). There are patterns of inequality. The way society is organized does not benefit everyone equally. Stresses how members of privileged groups seek to maintain advantages while members of subordinate groups struggle to increase theirs. Usually it's elimating privileges and advantages. People are part of groups that same a similar outlook on life (class). Classes are in a struggle because they want different things. They develop what I called class conflict which represents the common goals of a people.

Conflict Theory

1. Increase 2. Fewer

Cortical Plasticity and Generalization 1. Removing the auditory cortex of a cat results in (increases/decreases) in generalization among tones of different frequency. 2. Repeated unreinforced presentation of a tone CS would cause (more/fewer) neurons in the auditory cortex to respond to the tone.

is changing what we remember. Modifying memory rather than wiping them out. Behavior mdoficiation through contingency managemen

Counterconditioning

Declarative: facts that are remembered No declarative: requires repitiion like procedural memory, classical conditioning

Declarative: No declarative:

"Gaining insights through increased social is distantiation (Mannhein 2011) Think about visiting a place that you are not as used to. You are able to take in so many details of the vibe of the place. You are able to see that with a set of eyes that people there cannot see. This is what it means by seeing with the eyes of the outsider. Part of the sociological trick to engage in is trying to promote in ourselves the idea of looking at society through the eyes of a stranger. Scientific knowledge is continuing to ask why. The world is being investigated for answers. It's about taking the watch and taking it apart to find out more about it.

Describe distantion

An action potential reaches a certain thershold where it goes through the process of depolarization until it reaches an action potential. Then it goes through repolarization and evenually a refractory period until it goes back to it's original resting potential

Describe the stages of generating an action potential

based on relationships. Interested in looking a patterns of how you interact with family members and acquintences.

Describe what Micro structures are

Copying that involves reproducing motor acts is called true imitation. Copying that involves replicating an outcome without replicating specific motor acts is called emulation.

Difference between copying and true imitation

1. US, model; UR, sexual arousal (in men, who are the targeted customers); CS, the car; CR, arousal of pleasurable feelings at the thought and sight of the sports car. 2. US, hot pizza for dinner; UR, anticipation of dinner and salivation; CS, smell of cardboard burning; CR, hunger pangs and salivation.

Discrete or Distributed Representation Models? Which of the following learning experiments can be understood and modeled using a discrete-component representation of the stimuli? Which require a distributed representation with overlapping patterns of elements? 1. A low-frequency tone predicts a shock and a high-frequency tone predicts a shock, but a light predicts food. Test: What does a medium-frequency tone predict? 2. Patients in a hospital that has the walls painted blue take 2 days, on average, to recover and be discharged, while patients in a hospital that has red walls take 4 days to recover and be discharged. Test: How many days would you expect it to take for patients in a hospital with green walls to recover?

Occurs when an arousng stimulas is introduced into a sequence which someone has already been habituated to

Dishibituation

(1) Even an organisms like this can adapt. If you place the little worm with a temperature gradient then it will "wiggle" to the temperature it prefers. If you raise them at different temperatures then they will prefer different temperatures too! Which shows conditioning by temperature . (2) You can also do associative conditioning letting it feed at a certain temperature then it will go looking for that temperature.

Even an organisms like a small idion can adapt. Describe the example the professor gave for (1) conditioning (2) associative learning

massed spaced

Exposures that are repeated closely together in time are called ____, whereas exposures that are spread out over time are called ___.

appearance in many different species, so that the results found in one species can reasonably be expected to apply to others.

Eyeblink conditioning: With repeated pairings of the tone CS and airpuff US, subjects develop a CR: in this case, an anticipatory blink that occurs before US arrival, so that the eye is partially shut and partially protected when the airpuff occurs. the similarity of its _____________________

(a) For the tone cue to correctly generate a strong response, the connection from that input to the output must be strongly weighted. (b) For the light cue to correctly generate a strong response, the connection from that input to the output must also be strongly weighted. (c) Consequently, when both tone and light cues are present, the network will incorrectly give a strong response

Failure of a singlelayer network with discrete-component representations to learn negative patterning

(1) Different methods of drug injection are another form of environmental cue that can become associatedwith drug expectation. One longtime heroin addict is reported to have died of an overdose when, looking for an accessible blood vein, he injected himself in his penis for the first time (Winek, Wahaba, & Rozin, 1999). 2) An unusual to a drink can serve as a novel situational cue influencing the effects of alcohol on the brain.

Foreplay and doing different things together sexually

(a) mental construct (b) variable (©classes (d) attributes

Full part part time flex time (4)

is the assumption that everything in society has a purpose. Stresses that human behavior is governed by stable patterns at social relations ("social structures"). social moment social stability. Suggest social structures based mainly on shared values. Argues that reestablish equilibrium is best way to solve most social problem.

Functionalism

Gill Withdrawal reflex mechanical stimulation of the siphon causes withdrawal of the siphon and the gill. Habituation: After repeated stimulation, effect is reduce; there is no consequence to the organism so it gives up. Sensitization: Effect is increased following a strong stimulation Potentiation: effect is increased following multiple stimuli (temporal summation)

Gill Withdrawal reflex: Habituation: Sensitization: Potentiation

Asking the organism to do something it would usually do for the reward. It's reward is turning off the sound or turning off the heat. The animal has to hold its leg at a certain place that the light goes off. It's natural tendencies is to kick it's leg. So the animal has been conditioned at that point. At this point you can ask the animal to do all sorts of things. This involves a very simple understanding of the nervous system. If he holds his legs in a particular position for the food to be dropped down. So it waves around a bit. Basically you can condition the nervous system and record from the nerves that operate the elevated muscles of the insect and get an idea of where the conditioning actualy occurs.

Graham Hoyle Apparutus

in seconds or minutes

Habituation that goes away in _______ is called short-term habituation; habituation that lasts longer is called long-term habituation.

Neurons transmit information through firing through the terminal buttons. This is done through the equilibrium of potassium and sodium through the lipid bilayer through ion selected channels. There is also a process of diffusion is where it is by probability more likely for for the K+ to find their way outside of the cell while Na+ finds their way inside the cell.

How do neurons transmit and store information? Describe the follow (1) ions (2) equilibrium (3) lipid bilayer (4) diffusion (5) direction of K+ and Na+

If B is 0.2 (change)WLight = b x prediction error = 0.2 x 100 = 20 Expected US = WLight = 20

If B is 0.2 (change)WLight = Expected US = WLight =

(a) calcium there so there is sensitization. (b) maximally sensitizes and the effect of the mild stimulus will be at its greatest (c) temporal

If the action potential gets there a bit early there will be ___a__________ If a stimulus occurs too early (before tail is shocked) the system will recover from the first stimulus then you won't get any association between the two stimuli because the effect of two is over already. If the stimuals occurs just after then the terminal will be _________b__________. It will be less enhanced than the interval between the two stimuli increases. That means there is a ____C____association made between the stimuli. It will become learned and remembered if the two stimuli together then it would have the most effect.

habituation effects accumulate over time

If the infant is needs to be shown the donuts 20 times then a day or two later it will only take 8 showings for the child to habituate to it. What does this demonstrate?

"When you do fire, fire strongly."

In Aplysia. Serotonin increases the number of glutamate vesicles available to release glutamate from neuron each time it fires In effect, the interneuron does not tell S whether to fire; instead, it tells S, ___________

that same response.

In contagion, the observation of a response reflexively evokes _____________

n outcome that an organism will work to obtain is called a reinforcer; an outcome that an organism will work to avoid is called a punisher.

In operant conditioning, organisms _____________ : Stimulus S Response R Outcome O.

learn to recognize stimulus differences that were not noticed before, and sensory neurons may change how they respond to events over time.

In perceptual learning, an individual

In short term that system has essentially learned and remembered. It continues to be potentiated on later trail and you simply touch the sython again and again. In long term memory: If you continue to do this the pairing becomes stronger and stronger. This involve a continuous reminder of the relationship between the two stimuli which is reflected back at the nucleus

In short term that system has essentially ______________________ In long term memory:_______________________

The left will do a certain thing to prevent the shock while the other one has no actual control. The one on the left has to hold its head in a certain way.

Instrumental operant conditioning experiment

sensitized

Jeffrey's grandmother became _________ to the sounds she repeatedly heard coming from her basement, and ultimately they annoyed her so much that she kicked Jeffrey out

pre-exposure to the CS with no pairing, results in slower learning of the CS-US

Latent inhibition:

instructed to do so

Like individuals with autism, patients with frontal-lobe lesions tend to imitate observed actions automatically but have difficulty imitating actions when _______________

(1) changes in receptor sentivity/number (2) changes in gene transcription (3) changes in synapse number/neuron shape

Longer term changes (3)

small changes in magnetic fields

MEGs measure____________ rather than changes in electrical fields. MEG recordings showed that larger changes in somatosensory-cortex activity in response to tactile stimulation predicted larger improvements in discrimination abilities (Godde, Ehrhardt, & Braun, 2003).

1. Context specific so as many locations as possible 2. Time serves as a powerful context 3. Should take place in the original plae the drug habits were acquired 4. Stimulas itself can be a context for further drug taking so using small traces of the drug is important

Mark Bouton and colleagues, studying the extinction of conditioned responses in rats (4)

plasticity

Modification of synapse number and strength is called __________

Memory Attribute (a) semantic - not me (b) skill/motor - usually non conscious and you usually get better at it (c) autobiographic - the memory that we are contained in (d) episodic (e) time - a when aspect of autobiographical

Name 4 types of memory attributes

(a) Learning - process by which changes in behavior arise as a result of our past experience interacting with the world . When an organism learns something it retains a record of experience and it is able to go back to retrieve this record (b) Conditioning - when people tested fruit flies to learn the question asked was that whether this type of "remembering" is the same as humans. Did the animal learn something or did they become conditioned to it? When we exercise we are conditioning. Is it possible then that an animal is adapting to the procedure rather than learning it? (c) Memory - a record back into history acquired through learning (d) Plasticity - the nervous system's ability to change to acquire and retain new forms of configurations. It's well known that the aging adult brain could learn. Perhaps old dogs can learn new tricks, but there are certainly critical periods of learning. (e) Adaptation - change in behavior and physiology for survival. This would not require a conscious effort for example we adapt when we are in the classroom wit

Name and describe the differences between learning, memory, conditioning and plasticity

(a) Working - information is processed (b) Short Term - a number of system that interact so that the information acquired is not actively being process, it is still waiting. This allows us to integrate and experience over time. Allows us to continue having our experience while our brain is comparing this experience with other experiences that we were having in the past. When we have an experience we are remembering the experience at the same time. (c) Long Term - for longer storage

Name and describe the three general memory functions

1. organization (purpose) 2. self maintenance 3. reproduction 4. Sensation 5. Conditioning 6. Memory

Name the 6 basic features of memory

What if a certain combination of cues implies something totally different from what the individual cues mean? What if a certain combination of cues implies something totally different from what the individual cues mean?

Negative Patterning

cortical areas

Neuroimaging studies of humans have correlated activation in _____ where mirror neurons are likely to be found with the performance or observation of particular actions

explaining in painful detail how they are going to measure what they are going to measure.

Operationalization

is intramental conditioning. Using the animal's own behavior to teach it something.

Operent conditionig (Skinner)

Repeated experiences have different effects on the initial reaction. The feeling of fear is usually followed by the effect of exhilaration. We can for example come to enjoy scary movies because the effect of the fear habituates faster than the rebound effect of exhilaration.

Opponent process theory in terms of why some people enjoy scary movies

Organism's natural reaction to a novel stimulus or to an important event.

Orienting response

superconditioned to the US

Peak Shift and the Rescorla-Wagner Model in Fixed-Ratio Operant Conditioning If cue A is first trained as a conditioned inhibitor of the US (that is, A predicts absence of the US) and then A is paired with a new, unfamiliar cue, B, and both together are repeatedly associated with the US, B will become ______________; that is, it will come to overpredict the US. By analogy to the example above, the conditioned inhibitor, cue A, is like the backward paddler, who makes you (like cue B) have to paddle extra hard to get where you are going.

the improvements in acuity are behaviorally evident and are noticed as art of the learning proces

Perceptual learning during discrimination training is not latent, because ___________

rotated along with the maze spatial learning abilities decline

Place cell responded preferentially when the rat was in the southwest corner of the Maze. the place cell's preferred location has _________. experiments in which rats' place-field shrinkage is disrupted (for example, by blocking inputs from the thalamus) show that the rats' _______________ (Cooper & Mizumori, 2001

Observation: Darwin, Galton, James Behaviorism: Waterson, Skiner Classical and Operent: Pavlov, Thorndike Latent learning: tolman [2.3]

Place the following into the categories which the professor discussed in lecutre Observation Behavioriwm Classical and operent Latent Watson, Tolman, Thorndike, Galton, James, Darwin

Say that grand narratives are supposed to offer insight about everything Rejects universalism and essentialism and rejects that there can be universal laws. Instead the focus should be how thing come to be. How is that different than how it was experienced 30 years ago. How is body? Health? Mental health taken up? Fourcault Bourdieu

Post Sturcturalism vs Grand narratives

a. idigographic explaing one case in great detail

Pregnant at 15. Tammy decided to have a baby. Dropping out of school. At age 6 on her own beginning to work as a prostitute. What kind explanation is presented a. idigographic explaing one case in great detail b. nomothertic explaining a set of cases using a handful of factors c. probabilistic d. quantitative

homunculus, a distorted neural representation of the human figure with ex aggerated hands and lips but a greatly shrunken torso

Primary sensory cortex (S1)

explained as a strengthening of existing connections between cortical neurons

Priming might then be __________ that lasts only as long as the priming effect.

reduction theory

Psychologist Clark Hull's drive ___________________ proposed that all learning reflects the innate, biological need to reduce these drives by obtaining primary reinforcers (Hull, 1943, 1952).

Pure research foremost interested in understanding Applied research foremost interested in application

Pure research Applied research

mere exposure learning

Rats familiar with the shapes learned to discriminate between them faster than rats that had never seen the shapes before is an example of ________________

disruptions in memories of the position of the object and the context in which it was experienced were integrated.

Rats with hippocampal damage showed impaired object recognition memory due to _________________________________

retune neurons within the sensory cortices of adults

Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that it is relatively easy to _______________ and that it can be done in less than a day. For example, simply touching a person's fingertip repeatedly with tiny pins was shown to improve the person's ability to distinguish subtle differences in the pins' positions.

disrupts operant conditioning

Reinforcers and punishers may activate neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), which project dopamine to the dorsal striatum, frontal cortex, and elsewhere. Interruptinthese pathways, by lesions or drugs,_______

lateral inhibition

Removing the hippocampus (and associated cortical input regions) eliminates _________ effect in classical conditioning of the rabbit eyeblink reflex (Solomon & Moore, 1975; Shohamy, Allen, & Gluck, 2000).

shrinkage (or compression) by the hippocampal region expanded (or differentiated), creating a new, efficient, optimized representation that encodes only

Representation of unimportant or redundant information undergoes _____, while the representation of useful information is ________________ the key aspects of incoming information.

V = current associative value CS->US

Rescorla-Wadner model

the animal learns very slowly, which implies that changes in the weights will occur gradually over many trials. is different learning situations may have different learning rates

Rescorla-Wagner Model learning rate: the degree to which the prediction error changes current association weights is the value that can range from 0 to 1 and controls how much learning takes place after each trial. (a) A small learning rate means that _____________________ (b) Different animals______________________

• Change the probability that the neuron will fire (short term) • Change the connectivity with other cells (long term) Synaptic strength

Role of the single cell in learning and memory (3)

that allows both for error-correction learning (US modulation) and for changes in the salience of CS cues (CS modulation), with these events occurring at different times through different processes (Wagner, 1981).

SOP (sometimes opponent process)

1. A set of n = 18 pairs of scores produces a Pearson correlation of r = 0.60 with SSy = 100. Find SSregression and SSresidual and compute the F-ratio to evaluate the significance of the regression equation of predicting Y. (Ch 16, multiple regression 2)

SSregression = 36 with df = 1. nesidual = 64 with df = 16. F = 9.00. With df = 1, 16, the F-ratio is significant with either a = .05 or a = .01.

define whether the outcome O follows every response R, is available after some (fixed or variable) number of responses, or is available only after some (fixed or variable) time interval.

Schedules of reinforcement

Faster because this is an example of latent inhibition. While control can tune out the tone those with shizophrneia demosntrate an inability to tune it out

Schizophrenia, the Hippocampus, and Generalization In phase 1 of a study, a person with schizophrenia hears a tone played over and over 10 times with nothing following it. Later, this same tone is repeatedly followed by a mild shock. Do you think the person would learn the tone-shock association faster or slower than a healthy control subject?`

Stage 1: researchers values help them deicide which problems are worth investigating Stage 2: values lead researchers to formulate and adopt theories to interpreting explaining those problem Stage 3L Researchers' interpretation are influenced by previous research. There are limitations such as language which can stop you from accessing certain data. Stage 4 methods used to gather data mould researcher's perceptions.

Self enters at various stages of soc research (4) The work you do you need to justify to a different group of peers. These peers need to be able to look at your work and say yes that these are legitimist.

Sensitize the sensory neuron without any action potential

Sensitization can occur without an action - the serotonin can _______________. The sensitization of terminal and sensory output don't have to occur together.

are especially important for making such distinctions, and the somatosensory cortex is an example. Sensory cortices are areas of the cerebral cortex that process visual stimuli, auditory stimuli, somatosensory (touch) stimuli, and so on.

Sensory cortices

by responding at about 50% of its original rate to the yellow-orange light, is implicitly showing that it expects, based on what it learned from pecking the yellow light (which always resulted in food), that there is an even chance that pecking the yellow-orange light will yield the same food delivery.

Shepard argues, is not confusing a yellow-orange 600-nm light with the original yellow 580-nm light; rather, the pigeon, but rather ________________

simultaneously active when moths were perceived.

Similarly, recognition of distorted versions of a familiar stimulus, such as might occur when a blue jay perceives a camouflaged moth, could also be facilitated by stored patterns encoded as connections between neurons that on a previous occasion were _________________

cumulative recorder

Skinner box—with a trough in one wall through which food could be delivered automatically ___________: because the height of the line at any given time represents the number of responses that have been made in the entire experiment (cumulatively) up to that time.

the notion that everything is connected shaped and defined by identifiable patterns. Everything is connected. We can focus on one line and follow it all the way around "how does the education system and race ethnicity intercept.

Social Web

The sociological imagination stresses the social context in which people live and how these contexts influences their lives (C Wright Mills, 1959). It is the way of looking at the world that allows links between apparently private problems of the individual and important social issues. Some of the problems you are facing are not personal individual problems, but are things that are connected to other individuals. In order to understand yourself you need to understand all the other things upon you. The more you see this then the better equipped you are to mobilize agency in the direction we are interested in.

Social imagination (9.16.2015 SOC Lec 1)

In order to study this they look at social location where people are located in particular society. This could be occupation, religion, SES.

Social location (9.16.2015 SOC Lec 1)

imitative learning as a special case of instrumental conditioning in which the act of copying is either directly or indirectly reinforced

Social-learning theorists sometimes describe _______________

(1) Require a goal (desired state) (2) Activity required to reach the goal (3) Continuous reference of current state to desire state (have to have some reference at how you got the thing; to retain in memory) (4) Regulation of modification of activity (5) Retention and repition of most effective actions (conditioning

Steps in the instrumental conditioning (5)

the more a stimulas is seen the less likely it is to occur

Stimulas generalization

Long: anatomical changes in neural circuits, including the growth or deletion of synapses Short: labile forms of memory are associated with temporary intracellular changes within existing anatomical pathways, including shifts in the location, size, or number of neurotransmitter vesicles, which alter synaptic transmission efficacy.

Studies of classical conditioning in Aplysia have demonstrated that long-lasting forms of memory: __________________ short-term, _________________

concentrating micro level interaction, what meaning do we attach ourselves? What ways do we see the world? It is all about discovering the meaning of things. (Weber, Gothman,

Symbolic Interactionism

1. (a) Lucy; (b) S is seeing candy (or going shopping with mother); (c) R is tantrum; (d) C is obtaining candy;(e) candy is added—so this is "positive"; (f) response increases—so this is a reinforcement paradigm. Conclusion: Lucy learns to throw tantrums to obtain candy. This is positive reinforcement. 2. (a) Susan; (b) S is her child's tantrum; (c) R is giving candy; (d) C is the tantrum stops (or is avoided altogether); (e) the tantrum is taken away—so this is "negative"; (f) response increases—so this is a reinforcement paradigm. Conclusion: Susan learns to give her child candy to stop (or avoid) tantrums. This is negative reinforcement. 3. (a) Snoopy; (b) S is being in the yard; (c) R is crossing the boundary; (d) C is the noise; (e) the noise is added— so this is "positive"; (f) response decreases—so this is a punishment paradigm. Conclusion: Snoopy learns to stay inside the yard. This is positive punishment. 4. (a) Miguel; (b) S is a rough tackle; (c) R is starting a fistfight; (d) C is playing privileges taken away; (e) playing privileges are taken away—so this is "negative"; (f ) response decreases—so this is a punishment paradigm. Conclusion: Miguel learns not to fight. This is negative punishment.

Test Your Knowledge Reinforcement vs. Punishment It's easy to confuse the ideas of negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and so on, since we often use the words "positive" and "negative" to mean "good" and "bad." Don't fall into this trap! In operant conditioning, "positive" and "negative" mean "added" and "subtracted," regardless of whether this addition or subtraction is pleasant or unpleasant. You can determine what kind of paradigm you're dealing with by asking yourself whether the outcome is added to (positive) or subtracted from (negative) the environment and whether the outcome causes responding to increase (reinforcement) or decrease (punishment). Try your hand at the following scenarios, and see if you can tell whether each is an example of positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, or negative punishment. For each scenario, ask yourself: (a) Who does the learning? (b) What is the stimulus? (c) What is the response? (d) What is the outcome? (e) Is the outcome something added or taken away? (f) Does the response increase or decrease as a result of learning? 1. At the grocery store, 2-year-old Lucy sees candy and wants it. Her mother says no, and Lucy starts to cry. The situation quickly escalates into a full-blown temper tantrum. Eventually, Lucy's mother relents and buys Lucy some candy. The next time they go shopping, Lucy sees candy and immediately throws another tantrum. This time, she obtains the candy quickly. 2. An interesting aspect of conditioning is that sometimes more than one person is doing the learning. Scenario 1 is presented from Lucy's point of view. But consider the same story from the mother's point of view: Susan takes her toddler on and in a rush, Susan gives the child some candy, and the tantrum stops. On the next trip, as soon as the child starts a preliminary wail, Susan quickly hands over some candy to stop the screaming. 3. Shevonne installs an electric fence system around the perimeter of her yard and gives her dog Snoopy a collar that makes a high-pitched noise whenever he gets too close to the boundary. The first time Snoopy strays out of bounds, the noise plays and distresses him. Soon, Snoopy learns to avoid the noise by staying inside the yard. 4. Miguel is a wide receiver on a college football team. During a close game, an opposing player tackles him roughly, and Miguel starts a fistfight in retaliation. Considering this behavior unacceptable, the coach revokes Miguel's playing privileges for a week. When allowed to rejoin the team, Miguel is again tackled roughly. This time, he reacts by shouting at the opposing player and protesting to the referee—but stops short of starting another fistfight.

Is the dishabituation of sexual responding to a familiar female, but a renewal in interest if a new female is presented

The Coolidge effect (Dewsbury, 1981; Fisher, 1962)

The ventral striatum is strongly activated when you present the reward. Both the Yok and the experimental showed that. The dorsal only shows up when the person is doing. It is only then that the individual choice to pick is the same probability

The Critic ventral The actor dorsal

both rats and children, the opportunity to perform a highly frequent behavior can reinforce a less frequent behavior

The Premack Principle: Responses as Reinforcers:

states that the opportunity to perform a highly frequent behavior can reinforce performance of a less frequent behavior. The response deprivation hypothesis states that any behavior can be reinforcing if the opportunity to perform that behavior is restricted.

The Premack principle

prediction error

The Rescorla-Wagner Model The amount of change that occurs in the association between a CS and a US depends on a ____________, the difference between whether the animal expects the US and whether the US actually occurs (Rescorla & Wagner, 1972

connectionist network

The _________ models adapted their association weights using a generalized (and more powerful) variation on the Rescorla-Wagner model, thereby showing how many complex human abilities (including speech recognition, motor control, and category learning) might emerge from configurations of elementary associations similar to those studied in conditioning experiments.

The rats startle responses declines after continue exposure to the same loud noise

The acoustic startle response

the mechanisms underlying habituation continue to change with repeated exposures, even when behavioral responses are no longer changing.

The amount of time required for spontaneous recovery increases after more exposure despite the rat not really reacting at all to the stimulus anymore. This demonstrates that the mechanisms ______________________________

cortical receptive fields

The capacity for _________ and cortical spatial organization to change as a result of experience is called cortical plasticity. It suggests that your perception may also change over time—which is exactly what studies of perceptual learning show.

storing stimulus- response (S-R) associations; striatal-mediated S-R associations may be relatively automatic and habitual.

The dorsal striatum is an important brain substrate for

which are mimicked by many highly addictive drugs, may signal the hedonic value ("liking") of reinforcers and punishers such as food and pain

The endogenous opioids, .

these associative weights are used to make estimates of conditional probabilities given only partial information, namely, the information about the presence of only one of the symptoms with no information about the other symptoms. Thus, one moral of this study is that the accuracy of people's information about a category may be very tightly bound to the particular way they learned the properties of that category. Such learning may not generalize well if a subsequent transfer taskchallenges the learners to apply their knowledge in novel ways.

The failure of generalization occurs when

1. A researcher computes a multiple-regression equation for predicting annual income for 40-year-old men based on their level of education (X, = number of years after high school) and their social skills (X2 = score from a self-report questionnaire). The regression equation is Y = 8.3X1 + 2.1X2 + 3.5 and predicts income in thousands of dollars. Two individuals are selected from the sample. One has XI = 0 and X2 = 16; the other has X1 = 3 and X2 = 12. Compute the predicted income for each. (Ch 16, multiple regression 2)

The first man has a predicted income of Y = 37.1 thousand dollars and the second has Y = 53.6 thousand dollars.

he incentive salience hypothesis of dopamine function states that the role of dopamine in operant conditioning is to signal how much the animal "wants" a particular outcome—how motivated it is to work for it.

The incentive salience hypothesis

that dopamine modulates " wanting" rather than "liking"—determining how hard an organism is willing to work for a reinforcement. Dopamine also affects plasticity, possibly helping to create or strengthen S-R associations in the dorsal striatum and elsewhere.

The incentive salience hypothesis suggests

, the temporal gap between the onset of the CS and the onset of the US, can have significant effects.

The interstimulus interval (ISI)

heterosynaptic

The key to sensitization is that it is ________, meaning that it involves changes across several synapses, including synapses that were not activated by the sensitizing event. Because of this feature, a tail shock increases responses toany future stimulus.

spatial symmation: the number of activated synapses in close proximity temporal summation: the number of signals arriving in close succession

The likelihood of a post synaptic response depends on spatial summation and temporal summation. What are these?

potassium

The only ion channel that stays open at rest is the _________channel and as long as it is open no firing will occur because it will remain strongly negative

response-outcome (R-O) associations and in helping organisms to choose particular responses based on the expected outcomes of those actions

The orbitofrontal cortex may be an important brain substrate for storing

exaggerated form of the mechanism for sensitization

The paired training produces an increase in the glutamate vesicles that are released in the siphon's synapse on the motor neuron, much like an _______________described in Chapter 3 (Hawkins, Abrams, Carew, & Kandel, 1983). This implies that a cellular mechanism for classical conditioning can be understood as an elaboration of the same cellular mechanism used for sensitization.

activity-dependent enhancement

The pairing-specific enhancement of glutamate release in the sensory neuron synapse is called an _______because it depends on activation of the sensory neuron prior to the administration of the US.

receptive field

The range of stimuli that cause a particular cortical neuron to fire is called the neuron's __________

spontaneous recovery

The reappearance or increase in strength of a habituated response after a period of no stimulus presentation is called _____________

Electrical junctions

There are both chemical and electrical synapses.__________ are where two cells communicate with each other by directly passing currents from one direction to another. Large holes between cells for current to pass. It allows cells serving similar functions to increase the impact.

electrically

There are two types of cells Bulla gouldiana. One type of cell causes the animal to stop moving if illuminated. There are tiny action potentials and in response you see huge deflections. In this case _____ coupled cells bring on the stronger firing later.

latent inhibition

This learning about a cue's irrelevance through exposure to the cue alone (with no associated significant event) is quantified by a measure known as__________, a reduction in learning about a stimulus (CS) to which there has been prior exposure without any consequence (that is, no US).

dormant but not gone spontaneous recovery

This suggests that even though the animal (or person) is no longer responding to the CS at the end of extinction training (as seen in Figure 4.10), the learned response is _______________. Evidence for this view of extinction comes from studies that show that the original learned response can reappear if the animal is moved to another context (such as another room or testing chamber) or if a long time passes before the animal is retested with a presentation of the CS. The return of a CR after such a delay is an example of __________ the tendency for a previously learned association to reappear after a period of extinction.

free-operant paradigm

Thorndike's procedures were the animal—not the experimenter—now controlled its own rate of responding, by how quickly or slowly it ran around to start the next trial. Skinner referred to this type of setup as a _______________

(1) Mastery (2) Connectness (3) Me and Mine

Three motivational principles

(1) Conservatism - established views are slow to change (2) Accessibility - accessible information facts have a great impact (3) Superficiality vs Depth

Three processing principles

1) carry signals rapidly from cell to cell specialized cell-cell contact point 2) are electrical or chemical connections between neurons or between a neuron and an effector (e.g. muscle, gland) [changes in ion permeability are central to chemical synapse function] 3) excitatory or inhibitory

Three types of synapses

quickly learn to navigate from any starting point in the maze

Toleman's map rats appear to use visual cues to determine their location in such mazes. The rats that were given time to explore the maze could _______________

discrimination training

Training an individual to respond differently to different stimuli is often referred to as __________

a. neuronal communication b. regulatory site

Two major aspects of synaptic function

Unconditioned stimulus, or US: meaning a stimulus that naturally—that is, without conditioning—evokes some response. unconditioned response, or UR; their relationship does not depend on learning. conditioned stimulus, or CS: neutral stimulus, the bell, becoming a stimulas that evokes a particular response. conditioned response

Unconditioned stimulus, or US: unconditioned response, or UR conditioned stimulus, or CS conditioned response

anticipatory response that prepares the animal for the expected US

Understanding the Conditioned Response the conditioned response can be understood as an ____________________________, in much the same way that Moira prepares for the arrival of an anticipated ice cream truck or Chuck prepares for a predicted rainstorm. By moving away from the odor associated with shock, the fly is more likely to avoid being shocked. By salivating in anticipation of food, the dog is better prepared to efficiently digest the food. By freezing in anticipation of a shock, the rat is better prepared to ward off danger and also avoids having ongoing motor behaviors (such as eating) disrupted by the shock. By moving toward the light, the quail is all the sooner able to mount and copulate with the female.

antipsychotic medications partially remediate the acquired-equivalence deficits in people with schizophrenia, suggesting that these medications either enhance hippocampal region function directly or else indirectly enhance the ability of the hippocampal region to cooperate with other brain regions (Shohamy et al., 2010)

What does antipsychotics medications do to people with shizophrenia?

The topic of ontology (what is real) and epistemology (how do we know what we know?). Ontology is what is real so almost every disciple is essential. If you don't believe in ghosts then you can't study ghosts. So sociologists believe that the impact of other individual's interaction is real. Otherwise we wouldn't even be able to study it! Epistemology. Essentially any values you hold and where you come from. The question for a science is how you making something observable and measurable?

What is ontology and epistemology. What are the assumptions in Soc? (9.16.2015 SOC Lec 1)|

In neural development there is a segmentation. This is a duplication that allows for the possibility of having diversification. There is also the idea of folding which means you need to get to a certain size and then protect the size of that organ. The brain cannot be continuously expanding. The folding of the brain allows for more and more service area to be accumulated into a small package.

What is segmentation and what is folding? Why are they essential?

Compass: did you know that? Did you know about? Lenses: have you thought about it like? Had you looked at this way?

What is the compas and the lense? (9.16.2015 SOC Lec 1)

Instrumental learning (action of the animal itself; instrumental in producing the experience)

What is the difference between instrumental learning and conditioning

instrumental conditioning

What this demonstrates is that insects can even do ____________. Obvious the fact that they could fly around and revisit food, but it was not clear that the insects were simply reacting using sensory apparatus. But instead what this demonstrates the learning of the location of things. This might not require a head because in this case it's happening in the borasic ganglia.

presynaptic terminals in the sensory neurons

When a sea hare is repeatedly exposed to the same stimulus over several days, the actual number of connections between the affected sensory neurons and motor neurons decreases. Specifically, the number of ___________ of animals that have been repeatedly exposed to the same stimulus is reduced.

it lasts for a longer time

When exposures are spaced in time, it takes longer for responding to habituate. Once habituation occurs _____________(Gatchel, 1975; Pedreira, Romano, Tomsic, Lozada, & Maldonado, 1998).

positive feedback depolariation

When membrane potential rises to about -40mv, voltage dependent sodium channels begin to open providing an inward potential and contribute to further depolarization. This produces a _______ effect and rapid ________

place cells

When the rats were placed in an environment and allowed to explore freely, the investigators made a surprising discovery. Some hippocampal neurons seemed to fire only when a rat wandered into particular locations, and other hippocampal neurons fired only when the rat was in other locations. These cells were coined to be called _______ to refer to neurons with such spatially tuned firing patterns.

interperosnus nuclei

Where does the conditioning occur? (think of a rabbit)

This is an incorrect understanding because it's not about electromagnetic charge of the neuron as a whole, but rather the charge of each chemical which by probability will cause them to organize in a particular way

Why is it wrong to consider the inside/outside process of Na vs K electric charge?

familiarity

William James (1890) defined _________ as the perception of similarity that occurs when an event is repeated—it is, in James's words, a "sense of sameness."

Expected US =W(light)= 0 Prediction error =actual US - expected US (Change)WCue = b x prediction error WCue on a trial is equal to a small constant b, called the "learning rate," multiplied by the prediction error

Write the Rescorla-Wagner model equation for expected US, Prediction error, (change)Wcue

An animal that has no control over the switch and gets all of the stimuli to compare with the experimental condition. Activity has nothing to do with the fact that the lights are on and off. There appears to be learnng in the yoked control as well. By chance it holds it still thinking the lamp. It is superstitious behavior.

Yoked control

Swhwann cells Node

___(1)____cells prevent charges to be felt instead these charges are felt at the ____(2)____ nodes which is where the action potential reappears

(1) few exposures (2) startle response (3) habituation

_____(1)____ are typically necessary to produce sensitization than to produce habituation, habituation is stimulus specific, sensitization is not. For example, an animal's startle response may habituate to one loud tone that. is repeated over and over; but if a different loud noise is presented, the ______(2)______ reappears in full force—______(3)_____ doesn't transfer to the new sound.

schwann

______ cellls direct currents along the axon rather than through adjacent regoins. THis accerates the transmission of the signal down the axon

cochlear implant

______ is a device electrically stimulates auditory nerves to produce hearing sensations in profoundly deaf individuals, primarily to assist them in processing speech

comparator

_______ model of habituation proposes that the changes in responses to repeated events are a consequence of the gradual construction of neural representations of stimuli and the contexts in which they occur (Sokolov, 1963; Wagner, 1979).

The law of effect

_________ The animal does not learn the consequence of the event until after the event is over. If the consequence was good then it will do it more often. The animal has to remember the cause previously. The strength of the reward is critical in understanding how fast the learning occurs.

Facilitation

__________ means that you increased the neurotransmitter pool. Generally occurs when you have multiple stimuli and you increase the response and there are more vesicles mobilized

Hebbian learning

__________. "When an axon of cell A is near enough to excite a cell B and repeatedly or persistently takes part in firing it, some growth process or metabolic change takes place such that A's efficiency, as one of the cells firing B, is increased" (Hebb, 1949). A shorthand version of this "rule" that neuroscientists often use is neurons that fire together, wire together

positive prediction error decrease in the CS → US association

__________: there is more US than expected, no CS or a novel CS is presented followed by a US, the US will be unexpected The CS predicts a US and the US does not occur, the prediction error is considered negative, and Rescorla and Wagner expect it to be followed by a ____________________

Sensitization 10 or 15 minutes

___________ is a phenomenon in which experiences with an arousing stimulus lead to stronger responses to a later stimulus. It may persist for _______after the shock, but beyond that, the startle response drops back to normal levels.

constraint-induced movement therapy dishabituated the monkey's responses to desensitization of an arm.

___________ is based on experiments where the left arm is bound so that the monkey can no longer use it, however, the monkey may begin using the desensitized right arm, even if it has not used that arm for several years. binding the left arm created a new situation that ___________________________________________

Sensory prostheses

____________ are electromechanical devices that interface with the brain areas that normally process sensory information

Differentiation theory

____________ suggests that representations of stimuli initially are formed rapidly and vaguely but become more precise over time by incorporating further details as the stimulus is repeated (E. Gibson, 1991). More complete representations allow more accurate discriminatory judgments between, as well as more accurate recognition of, stimuli.

Habit slip

____________ the discriminative stimulus of the maze environment S was so strongly associated with the maze-running response R that unexpected food encountered along the way couldn't disrupt the S-R association.

Discriminative stimuli

_____________ are stimuli that signal whether a particular response will lead to a particular outcome.

Perceptual learning

_________________ is learning in which repeated experiences with a set of stimuli makes those stimuli easier to distinguish

primary auditory cortex

after Thompson removed the _________________ (A1) of some of the cats, they responded equivalently to all tones, even those separated by 5 octaves or more! This experiment demonstrated that A1 was necessary for the production of appropriate generalization gradients to auditory stimuli (Thompson, 1965).

cerebellum has two main regions: cerebellar cortex, which contains certain large, drop-shaped, densely branching neurons called Purkinje cells. cerebellar deep nuclei Beneath the cerebellar cortex lies a collection of cells called the one of which is the interpositus nucleus.

cerebellar cortex Purkinje cells cerebellar deep nuclei interpositus nucleus

backward chaining: first train the rat to drop the marble in the tube, then train the rat to carry the marble to the tube and drop it in, and so on. At each stage, the rat must perform a progressively longer sequence of responses to gain its food.

chaining, _______________ backward chaining: ________________

no match: then a response (such as an orienting response) is triggered, provoking the organism to further examine the stimulus. partial match: then the existing representation is modified to include additional details. good match: then the orienting response is suppressed and no changes are made in the representation of the stimulus

comparator model of habituation. Describe what is supposed to occur in the conditions no match, partial match, and good match

in which the organism can make any of several possible responses, each leading to a different outcome. These allow researchers to examine how organisms choose to divide their time and efforts. The optimal behavior is some strategy that allows the pigeon to maximize the amount of food it can get from both keys, probably by spending the most effort on B but occasionally switching over to A just to check.

concurrent reinforcement schedules,

pigeons—is to identify the set of all stimuli that have the same consequence as the training stimulus

consequential region

a. idigographic explaing one case in great detai b. nomothertic explaining a set of cases using a handful of factors

digographic vs nomothertic

in which one of two different (but similar) stimuli was presented on each trial. For these pigeons, the 1,000-Hz tone signaled that a key peck would result in food reinforcement, but another, very similar tone of 950 Hz signaled that a key peck would not result in food reinforcement: S (1,000-Hz tone) → R (key peck) → O (food) S (950-Hz tone) → R (key peck) → O (no food)

discrimination training,

distancing: avoiding the stimuli that trigger the unwanted response. reinforcement of alternate behaviors, delayed reinforcement: whenever the smoker gets the urge to light up, she can impose a fixed delay (e.g., an hour) before giving in to it. Recall that increasing the delay between response and outcome weakens learning of the R-O association (see Figure 5.5). Imposing long delays between cravings and cigarettes may similarly weaken the association and will also, by default, reduce the total number of cigarettes smoked per day.

distancing reinforcement of alternate behaviors, delayed reinforcement

maintain system

dopamine

The response to a stimulas is determined by habituation and how strong the connection is from the detection of the sensory to the motor neurons. However if something activates the state system then it enhances the signal which can lead to increased response to R.

dual process theory, suggests that, in fact, repeated events always lead to the processes underlying both sensitization and habituation (Groves & Thompson, 1970; Thompson, 2009).

requires vocal imitation abilities. However, children with autism actually seem less able to learn from imitation than children without autism.

echolalia,

that are naturally occurring neurotransmitter-like substances (peptides) with many of the same effects as opiate drugs. (The word "endogenous" means "originating on the inside"; "opioid" means "opiate-like.") Endogenous opioids are distributed throughout the central nervous system, and when released into the body, they have a wide range of effects, including lessening the normal perception of pain and producing feelings of euphoria.

endogenous opioids,

CREB 1: activates genes in the neuron's nucleus that initiate the growth of new synapses CREB2: plays an opponent role, inhibiting the actions of CREB-1.

first protein, CREB-1, _________ . The second protein, CREB-2, _________ The creation of new synapses during learning requires a cascade of processes inside the cell that activate CREB-1 and suppress CREB-2.T he inactivation of CREB-1 does not affect the short-lasting forms of learning that depend only on increased glutamate release

homosynaptic

habituation in sea hares is that it is ____________, meaning that it involves only those synapses that were activated during the habituating event: changes in neuron S will not affect other sensory neurons

cortical areas

in opossums that had grown up blind. The __________ that were tuned exclusively to visual stimuli in sighted opossums had shrunk, and within those areas, some neurons now responded to auditory or somatosensory stimuli or both

1. Each CS has an associative weight (Think of these weights as numbers on a scale from 0 to 100 that indicate how strongly the CS predicts the US) 2. The expectation of a US is based on a sum of weights for all the CSs present (multi CS will essentially split the weight of the predicting factor) 3. Learning is proportional to the prediction error (measures how much the animal's prediction differed from what really happened)

mathematical model of the Rescorla-Wagner model depends on three assupmtions

meaning-based generalization because the tone and light are assumed to have the same meaning (that is, they both predict the airpuff) even though they do not have any relevant physical similarity. similarity-based generalization, which arises naturally between two stimuli that are physically similar. Sensory preconditioning shows that co-occurrence of two stimuli is sufficient to producemeaning-based generalization from one stimulus to the other.

meaning-based generalization VS similarity-based generalization,

organisms given a less preferred reinforcer in place of an expected and preferred reinforcer will respond less strongly for the less preferred reinforcer than if they had been given that less preferred reinforcer all along (Flaherty, 1982).

negative contrast:

Pavolvian focues on stimulas learning while instrumental conditioning is based on response learning

pavlovian conditioning vs intrumental conditioning

that is, to make a choice that is difficult to change later. So, for example, a student may be more likely to study early in the semester if he joins a weekly study group, in which case he will experience peer pressure to attend the group and to study a little each week

precommitment,

1. Describe what is measured by a Pearson correlation. 2. Can SP ever have a value less than zero? 3. Calculate the sum of products of deviations (SP) for the following set of scores. Use the definitional formula and then the computational formula. Verify that you get the same answer with both formulas. x y 0 1 4 3 5 3 2 2 4 1 (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression) 4. The value r2 is called the coefficient of determination because it measures the proportion of variability in one variable that can be determined from the relationship with the other variable. A correlation of r = 0.80 (or —0.80), for example, means that r2 = 0.64 (or 64%) of the variability in the Y scores can be (PSY202 CH 15 - Regression)

predicted from the relationship with X.

primary reinforcers, meaning that organisms have innate drives to obtain these things and therefore to repeat behaviors that provide access to these things. One complication is that primary reinforcers are not always reinforcing. Thirsty animals will work to obtain access to water, a primary reinforcer; but once they've drunk to satiation, further water is not reinforcing Secondary reinforcers, which are reinforcers that initially have no intrinsic value but that have been paired with (or predict the arrival of) primary reinforcers (Shahan, 2010). Another benefit of secondary reinforcers is that, although animals will not work for food unless they're hungry, they—like moneyseeking humans—may continue to work indefinitely for secondary reinforcers

primary reinforcers,___________________. Secondary reinforcers,__________________________

1. Discriminative stimuli for punishment can encourage cheating (punishment doesn't train the driver not to speed—it only teaches him to suppress speeding in the presence of police cars) 2. Concurrent reinforcement can undermine the punishment (effects of punishment can be counteracted if reinforcement occurs along with the punishment) 3. Punishment leads to more variable behavior (not a particularly good way to train desired behaviors) 4. Initial intensity matters. Punishment is most effective if a strong punisher is used from the outset. In one study, rats received a shock as they ran through a maze to the goal box (Brown, 1969)

punishers: consequences of a behavior that lead to decreased likelihood of that behavior in the future. Common punishers for animals include pain, loud noises, and exposure to predators (or even the scent of predators). Name the four views

dual process theory

rats that lived with the shapes would be expected to learn to distinguish the shapes faster than rats that had never seen them before, because the experienced rats should pay less attention to the shared features of the shapes would be an interpretation using the ___________

multimodal

receptive fields in other regions of the cortex were ________, meaning that neurons in those areas responded to inputs from more than one sensory modality—for example, visual and auditory stimuli.

removing even 1 cubic millimeter of tissue from the interpositus nucleus completely and permanently abolished all previously learned conditioned responses and prevented all future eyeblink learning. by disabling that one inhibitory pathway which is essential for the actual US minus expected US computation, Thompson and colleagues were able to "block blocking" (Kim, Krupa, & Thompson, 1998)

removing even 1 cubic millimeter of tissue from the interpositus nucleus ________. by disabling that one inhibitory pathway which is essential for the actual US minus expected US computation they were able to _______ (Kim, Krupa, & Thompson, 1998)

suggests that the critical variable is not which response is normally more frequent but merely which response has been restricted: by restricting the ability to execute almost any response, you can make the opportunity to perform that response reinforcing (Allison, 1993; Timberlake & Allison, 1974).

response deprivation hypothesis,

in which the prior presentation of two stimuli together, as a compound, results in a later tendency for any learning about one of these stimuli to generalize to the other

sensory preconditioning,

synaptic modification plasticity

synaptic strength

provides a means of modifying the strength of a signal as it travels along a neuronal path

synaptic-trasmission

trial-level models treat each trial as a single event resulting in a single change in learning. Does the CR occur right after the CS begins, or is it delayed until just before the US occurs delay conditioning, in which the tone CS continues throughout the trial and only ends once the US has occurred trace conditioning also includes a delay, but here the CS is first turned off before the US begins.

trial-level models treat each trial as a ___________________ delay conditioning, in which the tone CS __________________ trace conditioning also includes a delay, but here the CS _________________