# Gas Laws Study Module

Several properties of gases can be experimentally measured: temperature, pressure, volume, and the amount of the gas (i.e., the number of moles). The ideal gas law states that the relationship between these properties, or variables, in a mathematical formula. The ideal gas law is PV = nRT. P is the pressure in atmospheres (atm), V is the volume in liters (L), n is the number of moles, R is the gas constant (0.0821 L∙atm/(mol∙K)), and T is the temperature in Kelvins (K). Using the ideal gas law, determine the amount of gas, in moles, of a 8.32 L sample of hydrogen gas, under a temperature of 310 K and a pressure of 1.7 atm.

0.56 mol

The gas laws describe the behavior of gases under specific conditions of temperature, pressure, and volume. Three gas laws show the relationship between two variables when all others are held constant: Boyle's law (pressure and volume are inversely proportional), Charles's law (volume and temperature are directly proportional), and Gay-Lussac's law (temperature and pressure are directly proportional). The three laws can be combined into one law, called the combined gas law. pressure times volume over temperature under conditions 1 equals pressure times volume over temperature under conditions 2 A balloon has a volume of 2.55 L, a pressure of 1.15 atm, and a temperature of 25 °C. What is the new pressure, if the new volume is 3.15 L and the new temperature is 45 °C?

0.993 atm

Several properties of gases can be experimentally measured: temperature, pressure, volume, and the amount of the gas (i.e., the number of moles). The ideal gas law states that the relationship between these properties, or variables, in a mathematical formula. The ideal gas law is PV = nRT. P is the pressure in atmospheres (atm), V is the volume in liters (L), n is the number of moles, R is the gas constant (0.0821 L∙atm/(mol∙K)), and T is the temperature in Kelvins (K). Consider the following conditions: a sample of neon gas was under 3.0 atm of pressure, a volume of 570 mL with a temperature of 75 °C. Assume you are going to use the ideal gas law to solve for the unknown variable. What variable are you solving for? Are all of variables in the correct units? If not, which variable needs to be converted to the correct units?

1) Moles of gas 2) Volume needs to be converted to L, liters, and temperature needs to be converted to K, Kelvins

Several properties of gases can be experimentally measured: temperature, pressure, volume, and the amount of the gas (i.e., the number of moles). The ideal gas law states that the relationship between these properties, or variables, in a mathematical formula. The ideal gas law is PV = nRT. P is the pressure in atmospheres (atm), V is the volume in liters (L), n is the number of moles, R is the gas constant (0.0821 L∙atm/(mol∙K)), and T is the temperature in Kelvins (K). Consider the following conditions: carbon dioxide gas was placed into a 3 L balloon, under a temperature of 305 K, resulting in 2.6 moles of carbon dioxide. Assume you are going to use the ideal gas law to solve for the unknown variable. What variable are you solving for? Are all of variables in the correct units? If not, which variable needs to be converted to the correct units?

1) Pressure 2) All of the variables are in the correct units

Several properties of gases can be experimentally measured: temperature, pressure, volume, and the amount of the gas (i.e., the number of moles). The ideal gas law states that the relationship between these properties, or variables, in a mathematical formula. The ideal gas law is PV = nRT. P is the pressure in atmospheres (atm), V is the volume in liters (L), n is the number of moles, R is the gas constant (0.0821 L∙atm/(mol∙K)), and T is the temperature in Kelvins (K). Consider the following conditions: a 3,500 mL tank was filled with 27 moles of argon gas under a pressure of 12 atm. Assume you are going to use the ideal gas law to solve for the unknown variable. What variable are you solving for? Are all of variables in the correct units? If not, which variable needs to be converted to the correct units?

1) Temperature 2) Volume needs to be converted to L, liters

Several properties of gases can be experimentally measured: temperature, pressure, volume, and the amount of the gas (i.e., the number of moles). The ideal gas law states the relationship between these properties, or variables, in a mathematical formula. The ideal gas law is PV = nRT. P is the pressure in atmospheres (atm), V is the volume in liters (L), n is the number of moles, R is the gas constant (0.0821 L∙atm/(mol∙K)), and T is the temperature in Kelvins (K). Consider the following conditions: 4.5 moles of helium gas exist under 2.2 atm of pressure and a temperature of 45 °C. Assume you are going to use the ideal gas law to solve for the unknown variable. What variable are you solving for? Are all of variables in the correct units? If not, which variable needs to be converted to the correct units?

1) Volume 2) Temperature needs to be converted to K, Kelvins

The gas laws describe the behavior of gases under specific conditions of temperature, pressure, and volume. Three gas laws show the relationship between two variables when all others are held constant: Boyle's law (pressure and volume are inversely proportional), Charles's law (volume and temperature are directly proportional), and Gay-Lussac's law (temperature and pressure are directly proportional). The three laws can be combined into one law, called the combined gas law. pressure times volume over temperature under conditions 1 equals pressure times volume over temperature under conditions 2 A sample of radon gas has a volume of 1.53 L, a pressure of 1.15 atm, and a temperature of 305 K. What is the new pressure, if the new volume is 1.78 and the new temperature is 325 K?

1.05 atm

The gas laws describe the behavior of gases under specific conditions of temperature, pressure, and volume. Three gas laws show the relationship between two variables when all others are held constant: Boyle's law (pressure and volume are inversely proportional), Charles's law (volume and temperature are directly proportional), and Gay-Lussac's law (temperature and pressure are directly proportional). The three laws can be combined into one law, called the combined gas law. pressure times volume over temperature under conditions 1 equals pressure times volume over temperature under conditions 2 A sample of sulfur dioxide gas has a volume of 0.871 L and a temperature of 315 K, under a constant pressure. What is the new volume, if the temperature is increased to 385 K?

1.06 L

The gas laws describe the behavior of gases under specific conditions of temperature, pressure, and volume. Three gas laws show the relationship between two variables when all others are held constant: Boyle's law (pressure and volume are inversely proportional), Charles's law (volume and temperature are directly proportional), and Gay-Lussac's law (temperature and pressure are directly proportional). The three laws can be combined into one law, called the combined gas law. pressure times volume over temperature under conditions 1 equals pressure times volume over temperature under conditions 2 A sample of helium gas has a volume of 1.25 L and a temperature of 22 °C, under a constant pressure. What is the new volume, if the temperature is increased to 45 °C?

1.35 L

The gas laws describe the behavior of gases under specific conditions of temperature, pressure, and volume. Three gas laws show the relationship between two variables when all others are held constant: Boyle's law (pressure and volume are inversely proportional), Charles's law (volume and temperature are directly proportional), and Gay-Lussac's law (temperature and pressure are directly proportional). The three laws can be combined into one law, called the combined gas law. pressure times volume over temperature under conditions 1 equals pressure times volume over temperature under conditions 2 A sample of argon has a volume of 0.983 L, a pressure of 2.50 atm, and a temperature of 32 °C. What is the new volume, if the new pressure is 1.55 atm and the new temperature is 55 °C?

1.71 L

The gas laws describe the behavior of gases under specific conditions of temperature, pressure, and volume. Three gas laws show the relationship between two variables when all others are held constant: Boyle's law (pressure and volume are inversely proportional), Charles's law (volume and temperature are directly proportional), and Gay-Lussac's law (temperature and pressure are directly proportional). The three laws can be combined into one law, called the combined gas law. pressure times volume over temperature under conditions 1 equals pressure times volume over temperature under conditions 2 A sample of nitrogen has a volume of 1.75 L, a pressure of 2.00 atm, and a temperature of 35 °C. What is the new temperature, if the new volume is 2.45 L and the new pressure is 1.32 atm?

12 °C

Several properties of gases can be experimentally measured: temperature, pressure, volume, and the amount of the gas (i.e., the number of moles). The ideal gas law states that the relationship between these properties, or variables, in a mathematical formula. The ideal gas law is PV = nRT. P is the pressure in atmospheres (atm), V is the volume in liters (L), n is the number of moles, R is the gas constant (0.0821 L∙atm/(mol∙K)), and T is the temperature in Kelvins (K). Using the ideal gas law, determine the volume of a 1.43 mole sample of nitrogen gas, under a temperature of 301 K and a pressure of 2.5 atm.

14 L

Several properties of gases can be experimentally measured: temperature, pressure, volume, and the amount of the gas (i.e., the number of moles). The ideal gas law states that the relationship between these properties, or variables, in a mathematical formula. The ideal gas law is PV = nRT. P is the pressure in atmospheres (atm), V is the volume in liters (L), n is the number of moles, R is the gas constant (0.0821 L∙atm/(mol∙K)), and T is the temperature in Kelvins (K). Using the ideal gas law, determine the temperature of a 2.63 mole sample of xenon gas, with a volume of 1.60 × 104 mL and under a pressure of 2.20 atm.

163 K

The gas laws describe the behavior of gases under specific conditions of temperature, pressure, and volume. Three gas laws show the relationship between two variables when all others are held constant: Boyle's law (pressure and volume are inversely proportional), Charles's law (volume and temperature are directly proportional), and Gay-Lussac's law (temperature and pressure are directly proportional). The three laws can be combined into one law, called the combined gas law. pressure times volume over temperature under conditions 1 equals pressure times volume over temperature under conditions 2 A sample of carbon monoxide gas has a volume of 3.45 L and a pressure of 2.82 atm, under a constant temperature of 28 °C. What is the new volume, if the pressure is increased to 4.2 atm?

2.3 L

The gas laws describe the behavior of gases under specific conditions of temperature, pressure, and volume. Three gas laws show the relationship between two variables when all others are held constant: Boyle's law (pressure and volume are inversely proportional), Charles's law (volume and temperature are directly proportional), and Gay-Lussac's law (temperature and pressure are directly proportional). The three laws can be combined into one law, called the combined gas law. pressure times volume over temperature under conditions 1 equals pressure times volume over temperature under conditions 2 A sample of water vapor has a volume of 3.15 L, a pressure of 2.40 atm, and a temperature of 325 K. What is the new temperature, if the new pressure is 1.97 atm and the new volume is 2.78 L?

235 K

The gas laws describe the behavior of gases under specific conditions of temperature, pressure, and volume. Three gas laws show the relationship between two variables when all others are held constant: Boyle's law (pressure and volume are inversely proportional), Charles's law (volume and temperature are directly proportional), and Gay-Lussac's law (temperature and pressure are directly proportional). The three laws can be combined into one law, called the combined gas law. pressure times volume over temperature under conditions 1 equals pressure times volume over temperature under conditions 2 A sample of chlorine gas has a volume of 2.61 L, a pressure of 0.85 atm, and a temperature of 292 K. What is the new volume, if the new pressure is 0.65 atm and the new temperature is 298 K?

3.5 L

Several properties of gases can be experimentally measured: temperature, pressure, volume, and the amount of the gas (i.e., the number of moles). The ideal gas law states that the relationship between these properties, or variables, in a mathematical formula. The ideal gas law is PV = nRT. P is the pressure in atmospheres (atm), V is the volume in liters (L), n is the number of moles, R is the gas constant (0.0821 L∙atm/(mol∙K)), and T is the temperature in Kelvins (K). Using the ideal gas law, determine the pressure of a 0.820 mole sample of oxygen gas, under a temperature of 25.0 °C and a volume of 4.78 L.

4.20 atm

The gas laws describe the behavior of gases under specific conditions of temperature, pressure, and volume. Three gas laws show the relationship between two variables when all others are held constant: Boyle's law (pressure and volume are inversely proportional), Charles's law (volume and temperature are directly proportional), and Gay-Lussac's law (temperature and pressure are directly proportional). The three laws can be combined into one law, called the combined gas law. pressure times volume over temperature under conditions 1 equals pressure times volume over temperature under conditions 2 A sample of krypton gas has a volume of 5.78 L and a pressure of 2.92 atm, under a constant temperature of 300 K. What is the new volume, if the pressure is decreased to 1.75 atm?

9.64 L

The gas laws describe the behavior of gases under specific conditions of temperature, pressure, and volume. Three gas laws show the relationship between two variables when all others are held constant: Boyle's law (pressure and volume are inversely proportional), Charles's law (volume and temperature are directly proportional), and Gay-Lussac's law (temperature and pressure are directly proportional). Select the balloon volume that would represent the following conditions: the pressure increases under constant temperature.

Balloon A, volume decreases

The gas laws describe the behavior of gases under specific conditions of temperature, pressure, and volume. Three gas laws show the relationship between two variables when all others are held constant: Boyle's law (pressure and volume are inversely proportional), Charles's law (volume and temperature are directly proportional), and Gay-Lussac's law (temperature and pressure are directly proportional). Select the balloon volume that would represent the following conditions: the temperature decreases under constant pressure.

Balloon A, volume decreases

The gas laws describe the behavior of gases under specific conditions of temperature, pressure, and volume. Three gas laws show the relationship between two variables when all others are held constant: Boyle's law (pressure and volume are inversely proportional), Charles's law (volume and temperature are directly proportional), and Gay-Lussac's law (temperature and pressure are directly proportional). Select the balloon volume that would represent the following conditions: the temperature increases under constant pressure.

Balloon C, volume increases

The gas laws describe the behavior of gases under specific conditions of temperature, pressure, and volume. Three gas laws show the relationship between two variables when all others are held constant: Boyle's law (pressure and volume are inversely proportional), Charles's law (volume and temperature are directly proportional), and Gay-Lussac's law (temperature and pressure are directly proportional). Select the balloon volume that would represent the following conditions: the temperature is increased by half while the pressure is simultaneously decreased by half.

Balloon C, volume increases

The gas laws describe the behavior of gases under specific conditions of temperature, pressure, and volume. Three gas laws show the relationship between two variables when all others are held constant. Which statement best describes Gay-Lussac's Law?

Pressure and temperature are directly proportional to one another.

The gas laws describe the behavior of gases under specific conditions of temperature, pressure, and volume. Three gas laws show the relationship between two variables when all others are held constant. Which statement best describes Boyle's Law?

Pressure and volume are inversely proportional to one another.

The gas laws describe the behavior of gases under specific conditions of temperature, pressure, and volume. Three gas laws show the relationship between two variables when all others are held constant: Boyle's law (pressure and volume are inversely proportional), Charles's law (volume and temperature are directly proportional), and Gay-Lussac's law (temperature and pressure are directly proportional). What would happen to the pressure of a gas, if the temperature decreases, while the volume is held constant?

Pressure decreases

The gas laws describe the behavior of gases under specific conditions of temperature, pressure, and volume. Three gas laws show the relationship between two variables when all others are held constant: Boyle's law (pressure and volume are inversely proportional), Charles's law (volume and temperature are directly proportional), and Gay-Lussac's law (temperature and pressure are directly proportional). What would happen to the pressure of a gas, if the temperature increases, while the volume is held constant?

Pressure increases

The gas laws describe the behavior of gases under specific conditions of temperature, pressure, and volume. Three gas laws show the relationship between two variables when all others are held constant. Which statement best describes Charles's Law?

Temperature and volume are directly proportional to one another.

The gas laws describe the behavior of gases under specific conditions of temperature, pressure, and volume. Three gas laws show the relationship between two variables when all others are held constant: Boyle's law (pressure and volume are inversely proportional), Charles's law (volume and temperature are directly proportional), and Gay-Lussac's law (temperature and pressure are directly proportional). The three laws can be combined into one law, called the combined gas law. pressure times volume over temperature under conditions 1 equals pressure times volume over temperature under conditions 2 A sample of neon gas has a volume of 2.85 L and a temperature of 15 °C, under a constant pressure. What is the new temperature (in °C), if the volume is decreased to 1.45 L?

−126 °C